Int J Med Sci 2022; 19(2):299-309. doi:10.7150/ijms.66533 This issue

Research Paper

The Spectrum of Malignant Neoplasms among Liver Transplant Recipients: Sociodemographic Factors, Mortality, and Hospital Burden

Maryam Haider, MD, Anusha Bapatla, MD, Rana Ismail, PhD, MSc, Ahmed J Chaudhary, MD, FACP, Sana Iqbal, MD, FACP, Syed M Haider, MS

Department of Internal Medicine, Detroit Medical Center/Wayne State University-Sinai Grace Hospital, Detroit, USA.

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Citation:
Haider M, Bapatla A, Ismail R, Chaudhary AJ, Iqbal S, Haider SM. The Spectrum of Malignant Neoplasms among Liver Transplant Recipients: Sociodemographic Factors, Mortality, and Hospital Burden. Int J Med Sci 2022; 19(2):299-309. doi:10.7150/ijms.66533. Available from https://www.medsci.org/v19p0299.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

Objective: To determine the nationwide prevalence of malignant neoplasms (excluding hepatocellular carcinoma-HCC) in hospitalized liver transplant recipients and to study the hospital utilization, and mortality to the incidence of malignancies. To the best of our knowledge, few epidemiological studies addressed outcomes in post-liver transplant patients, such as the annual number of hospitalizations, mortality, patient characteristics regarding malignancies.

Methods: NIS database was queried between 2016 and 2018 to retrieve records of patients admitted with a principal or secondary diagnosis of liver transplant following the International Classification of Diseases, tenth Revision (ICD-10). The population was divided into case and control groups according to the presence and absence of malignant neoplasm (MN) except for HCC. We also compared the incidence of MN in LTX patients and non-LTX matched cohort.

Results: A total of 7.28% admissions were associated with malignant neoplasms (except HCC) in LTX patients. Lymphomas, respiratory, gastrointestinal (excluding HCC), leukemia, and head/neck were commonest cancers with estimated admission rates of 0.97%, 0.90%, 0.80%, 0.53%, and 0.49%, respectively. Lung cancer was the most frequent malignant neoplasm among White and Black racial/ethnic groups (15.78% and 14.8%), whereas lymphoma was pervasive among Hispanics (20.3%). Lung cancer had the highest in-hospital mortality (10.55%), followed by the cancer of the nervous system (9.09%). The LTX and non-LTX cohort comparison showed that LTX patients are at increased risk of head and neck cancers, skin cancers, lymphomas, tumors, and Myelodysplastic syndrome. According to a multivariate analysis, a statistically significant association existed between malignant neoplasms in LTX patients and the following factors: increasing age (P < .001), higher mortality (P < .001), females with 29% lesser odds than males (P < .001), Black race and Hispanic ethnicity with 20% and 26% lesser odds as compared to White (P < .05). Clinical factors included smoking, Alcoholic cirrhosis, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C, were statistically significant risk factors of post-liver transplantation malignancies.

Conclusions: Malignancies were frequent among elderly patients and predominantly in males. Lymphoproliferative diseases were the most prevalent malignancy types, followed by respiratory/lung cancer- which showed the highest mortality risk of all cancers. LTX patients are at increased risk of head and neck cancers, skin cancers, lymphoma, tumors, and Myelodysplastic syndrome compared to non-LTX patients.

Keywords: Liver Transplantation, Transplant Recipients, Neoplasms, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Lymphoma, Gastrointestinal Neoplasms.