Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(12):2493-2499. doi:10.7150/ijms.58291 This issue

Research Paper

Imaging and anatomical parameters of the lacrimal punctum and vertical canaliculus using optical coherence tomography

Jun Hu1#, Nan Xiang1#, Gui gang Li1, Ban Luo1, Yuan Zhang2, Yingting Zhu2, Rong Liu1✉

1. Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.
2. Tissue Tech, Inc., Ocular Surface Center, and Ocular Surface Research & Education Foundation, Miami, FL, 33173 USA.
#These authors contributed equally to this work.

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Citation:
Hu J, Xiang N, Li Gg, Luo B, Zhang Y, Zhu Y, Liu R. Imaging and anatomical parameters of the lacrimal punctum and vertical canaliculus using optical coherence tomography. Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(12):2493-2499. doi:10.7150/ijms.58291. Available from https://www.medsci.org/v18p2493.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

Purpose: The anatomical parameters of normal lacrimal puncta and vertical canaliculus using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the OCT imaging features of punctal lesions were analyzed to provide a basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Methods: From June to September 2019, 40 volunteers (80 eyes) from Tongji Hospital were enrolled. The external punctal diameter (ELP) was measured using slit-lamp microscopy and OCT. The internal lacrimal punctal diameter (ILP) at 100 μm, vertical canalicular length (VCL), and tear meniscus depth were measured by OCT with open eyes. Twenty-eight volunteers (56 eyes) underwent the same examinations with their eyes closed. The OCT imaging features of 26 patients (27 eyes) with lacrimal lesions were examined.

Results: The ELP of the right and left healthy eyes under slit-lamp microscopy were 564.40 and 555.40 µm respectively. Under OCT, the ELP, ILP, and VCL of the right and left eyes were 628.20 um and 616.85 µm, 343.40 µm and 346.95 µm, 731.95 um and 709.20 µm respectively. The ELP was larger when measured by OCT than slit-lamp microscopy (p<0.05). Twenty-eight volunteers (56 eyes) had measurements taken under different conditions. The ELP, ILP, and VCL of the open and closed right eyes were 667.54 and 567.21 µm, 369.18 and 303.18 µm, 715.00 and 417.14 µm, respectively. The ELP, ILP, and VCL of the open and closed left eyes were 655.86 um and 551.68 µm, 369.25 um and 313.54 µm, 719.96 um and 433.89 µm respectively. The anatomical parameters of the open eyes were greater than those of the closed eyes (p<0.05). Thus, we identified the imaging features of lacrimal stenosis, punctal obstruction, punctal tear, lacrimal atresia, and lacrimal mass using OCT.

Conclusions: OCT can be used to measure the anatomical parameters of lacrimal puncta and vertical canaliculus in vivo. In addition, OCT can detect punctal lesions in vivo and provide an objective basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of punctal lesions.

Keywords: anatomical parameters, canaliculus, lacrimal punctum, optical coherence tomography, punctal lesions