1. Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
3. Department of Anesthesia, Indiana University School of Medicine, IN, USA.
Although high-mobility group box 1 and heat-shock protein 70 are implicated in airway diseases and suggested as relevant diagnostic biomarkers, their control concentrations in the airways have not yet been determined. This study aimed to evaluate concentration of healthy subjects for both these proteins in the upper and lower airways via meta-analysis.
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar for articles describing concentration of healthy subjects for these proteins. Data from healthy populations were combined using a random-effects model, and subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine between-study heterogeneity. We analyzed 22 studies involving 485 patients.
Concentration of healthy subjects of high-mobility group box 1 and heat-shock protein 70 varied from “not detected” to 326.13 ng/mL and from 0.20 pg/mL to 9240.00 pg/mL, respectively, with the values showing significant heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis for high-mobility group box 1 revealed 13.63 ng/mL (95% CI 12.13-15.14), 100.31 ng/mL (95% CI -31.28-231.91), 9.54 ng/mL (95% CI 8.91-10.17), and 65.82 ng/mL (95% CI 55.51-76.14) for the lower airway, upper airway, pediatric populations, and adults, respectively, whereas that for heat-shock protein 70 revealed 20.58 pg/mL (95% CI 7.87-33.29) for the lower airway and 9240.00 ±11820 pg/mL for the upper airway. Although concentrations of healthy subjects of these proteins varied in the upper and lower airways, the levels of both these proteins were higher in the upper airway than in the lower airway, and these concentrations differed according to the age and sampling procedure.
Our findings support the further evaluation of these proteins as biomarkers for airway-related diseases.
Keywords: high-mobility group box 1 protein, heat-shock protein 70, reference ranges, biomarkers, meta-analysis