1. Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Centre, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea;
2. Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Background: Ischaemic reperfusion injury (IRI) after tourniquet release during total knee arthroplasty (TKR) is related to postoperative cerebral complications. Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) is known to minimise IRI in previous studies. Thus, we evaluated the effect of RIPC on regional cerebral oxygenation after tourniquet release during TKR.
Methods: Patients undergoing TKR were randomly allocated to not receive RIPC (control group) and to receive RIPC (RIPC group). Regional cerebral oxygenation and pulmonary oxygenation were assessed up to 24 h postoperatively. The changes in serum cytokine and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were assessed and arterial blood gas analysis was performed. Total transfusion amounts and postoperative bleeding were also examined.
Results: In total, 72 patients were included in the final analysis. Regional cerebral oxygenation (P < 0.001 in the left side, P = 0.003 in the right side) with pulmonary oxygenation (P = 0.001) was significantly higher in the RIPC group. The serum LDH was significantly lower in the RIPC group at 1 h and 24 h postoperatively (P < 0.001). The 24 h postoperative transfusion (P = 0.002) and bleeding amount (P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the RIPC group.
Conclusions: RIPC increased cerebral oxygenation after tourniquet release during TKR by improving pulmonary oxygenation. Additionally, RIPC decreased the transfusion and bleeding amount with the serum LDH level.
Keywords: Cerebral oxygenation, Ischaemic reperfusion injury, Remote ischaemic preconditioning, Total knee arthroplasty.