Int J Med Sci 2016; 13(5):316-324. doi:10.7150/ijms.14552
Prevalence of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Blacklegged Ticks, Ixodes scapularis at Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario
1. Research Division, Lyme Ontario, Fergus, Ontario, Canada N1M 2L7;
2. Department of Entomology and Center for Vector Ecology and Zoonotic Diseases. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut, USA 06511;
3. Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia, USA 30458;
4. Environmental Epidemiology Research Laboratory, Department of Public Health, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, Florida, USA 32224.
Scott JD, Anderson JF, Durden LA, Smith ML, Manord JM, Clark KL. Prevalence of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Blacklegged Ticks, Ixodes scapularis at Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario. Int J Med Sci 2016; 13(5):316-324. doi:10.7150/ijms.14552. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v13p0316.htm
Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region.
Keywords: Blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, prevalence, Dundas, Ontario.