Int J Med Sci 2014; 11(6):620-625. doi:10.7150/ijms.8251
PIK3CA Gene Amplification and PI3K p110α Protein Expression in Breast Carcinoma
1. Biomolecular Research Group, Biochemistry Program, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2. Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, 43300 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Firoozinia M, Zareian Jahromi M, Moghadamtousi SZ, Nikzad S, Abdul Kadir H. PIK3CA Gene Amplification and PI3K p110α Protein Expression in Breast Carcinoma. Int J Med Sci 2014; 11(6):620-625. doi:10.7150/ijms.8251. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v11p0620.htm
A family of PI3Ks is the lipid kinases, which enhance intracellular pools of phosphatidyl inositol 3,4,5-tri-phosphate (PIP3) through phosphorylating its precursor. Amplifications and deletions of genes, as well as somatic missense of the PIK3CA gene have been described in many human cancer varieties, including of the brain, colon, liver, lung and stomach.
Immunohistochemistry and Real-time quantitative PCR tests were used to determine the PIK3CA gene amplification (gene copy number) and to detect protein expression, respectively. The results obtained were analysed and the ratio of PIK3CA to β-actin gene copy number was calculated. Positive gene amplification of PIK3CA was appointed as a copy number of ≥4. Also, PI3K p110α protein expression was scored from 0 to 3+ and the scores of 2+ and 3+ were considered as positive for PI3K p110α protein expression.
We studied 50 breast carcinoma samples for PI3K p110α protein expression and PIK3CA gene copy numbers. In general, 36 out of 50 (72%) breast carcinoma samples showed a significant increase in PIK3CA gene amplification. 12 out of 50 (24%) showed positive staining, and 38 out of 50 (76%) showed negative staining for PI3K p110α expression.
We have identified no significant relationship between PIK3CA amplification, race (p= 0.630) and histological type (p=0. 731) in breast carcinoma, but correlation of PIK3CA amplification and age showed a significant relationship (p=0. 003) between them.
No significant relationship has been identified in correlation of PI3K p110α protein expression compared to age (p=0. 284), race (p=0. 546) and histological type (p=0. 285).
Amplification of PIK3CA was frequent in breast carcinoma and occurs in stages of breast carcinoma. Our result shows that there is a relationship between gene amplification and age in breast carcinoma. We suggest that PIK3CA is significant in breast tumorigenesis serve as a prevalent mechanism contributes to the oncogenic activation pathway of PIK3CA in breast cancer.
Keywords: Breast cancer, PI3 kinase, Real-time PCR, Expression