1. Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
2. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
3. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the effect of two fluoride varnishes and one fluoride/chlorhexidine varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus biofilm formation, in vitro.
Study design: Standard acrylic discs were prepared and divided into groups based on the varnish applied to the disc surface: Fluor Protector, Bifluoride 12, and Fluor Protector + Cervitec (1:1). Untreated discs served as controls. In the study groups, biofilms of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were formed over 24 h, 48 h, and 5 days. The fluoride concentrations in the monospecies biofilms and viable counts of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were investigated.
Results: In all study groups, a statistically significant increase in the viable number of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cells was observed between 24 h and 5 days. In both monospecies biofilms, the greatest antibacterial efficacy was detected in the Fluor Protector and Fluor Protector + Cervitec groups at 24 h. For all groups, the amount of fluoride released was highest during the first 24 h, followed by a significant decrease over the next 4 days. A negative correlation was detected between fluoride concentration and antibacterial effect in those groups with biofilms containing both species. Despite the release of high levels of fluoride, the greatest number of viable S. mutans and S. sobrinus cells was detected in the Bifluoride 12 group.
Statistics: The data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism software (ver. 3).
Conclusions: The Fluor Protector + Cervitec varnish exerted prolonged antibacterial effects on S. mutans and S. sobrinus biofilms compared to the other varnishes tested.
Keywords: biofilm, chlorhexidine, fluoride, fluoride-releasing material, in vitro, microbiology, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, varnish