International Journal of Medical Sciences

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18 March 2019

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Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(11):1194-1202. doi:10.7150/ijms.26941

Research Paper

Effects of Chinese Medicinal Formula BNG-1 on Phosphodiesterase 3B Expression, Hepatic Steatosis, and Insulin Resistance in High Fat Diet-induced NAFLD Mice

Chih-Hung Guo1,2, Wen-Long Chen3, Chung-Huei Liao3, Karin Huang3, Pei-Yin Chen4, Chun-Pai Yang1,5✉

1. Institute of Biomedical Nutrition, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan, ROC
2. Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan, ROC
3. Brain Genesis Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC
4. Department of Recreation and Holistic Wellness, Ming-Dao University, Changhua 523, Taiwan, ROC
5. Department of Neurology, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung 433, Taiwan, ROC


Background: Chinese medicinal formula BNG-1, a non-specific inhibitor of phospho-diesterases (PDEs), can be considered as a potential anti-inflammatory agent. The present study was aimed at determining the effects of BNG-1 on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice.

Design and Methods: Male CD1 mice were randomly divided into seven groups, the control Con (4) and Con (8)+saline groups were fed a standard control diet for four or eight weeks; the experimental HFD (4) and HFD (8)+saline groups were fed a high fat diet for four or eight weeks; the HFD (8)+LBNG, HFD (8)+MBNG, and HFD (8)+HBNG groups received a high fat diet along with low, moderate or high doses of BNG-1 (0.026, 0.035, and 0.052g/30g body weight) which was administered for the last four weeks of an eight-week experimental period. After the end of experiment, blood and tissue samples were taken and analyzed.

Results: Mice in the HFD (4) group had higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), plasma and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared with mice in the Con (4) group. Mice receiving the high fat diet along with the BNG-1 supplement had decreased body weight gains and lower visceral fat weights compared with the HFD (8)+saline group. They had also significantly reduced levels of abnormal ALT and HOMA-IR, and improved blood lipid profile. BNG-1-treated mice exhibited reduced hepatic lipid accumulation, lower oxidative stress, and decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). Furthermore, BNG-1 treatment resulted in down-regulation of hepatic cyclic-AMP dependent PDE3B and up-regulation of PDE3B expression in epididymis adipose tissue.

Conclusions: BNG-1 mediated changes in PDE3B expression along with reduction in oxidative stress and inflammation. BNG-1 may ameliorate insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in the NAFLD mouse model.

Keywords: BNG-1, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Phosphodiesterase (PDE)3B, Oxidative stress, Hepatic steatosis, Insulin resistance

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Guo CH, Chen WL, Liao CH, Huang K, Chen PY, Yang CP. Effects of Chinese Medicinal Formula BNG-1 on Phosphodiesterase 3B Expression, Hepatic Steatosis, and Insulin Resistance in High Fat Diet-induced NAFLD Mice. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(11):1194-1202. doi:10.7150/ijms.26941. Available from