International Journal of Medical Sciences

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23 February 2019

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Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(9):840-848. doi:10.7150/ijms.25004

Research Paper

A human origin strain Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 exhibits superior in vitro probiotic efficacy in comparison to plant or dairy origin probiotics

Ravichandra Vemuri1✉, Tanvi Shinde2, Madhur D Shastri1, Agampodi Promoda Perera1, Stephen Tristram1, Christopher J Martoni3, Rohit Gundamaraju1, Kiran D K Ahuja1, Madeleine Ball4, Rajaraman Eri1✉

1. School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7250 Australia
2. School of Land and Food, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7250 Australia.
3. UAS Laboratories, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
4. School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3082 Australia.


Background: The health benefits of probiotics are well established and known to be strain-specific. However, the role of probiotics obtained from different origins and their efficacy largely remains unexplored. The aim of this study is to investigate the in vitro efficacy of probiotics from different origins.

Methods: Probiotic strains utilized in this study include Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 (human origin), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis UABla-12 (human origin), L. plantarum UALp-05 (plant origin) and Streptococcus thermophilus UASt-09 (dairy origin). Screening assays such as in vitro digestion simulation, adhesion, cell viability and cytokine release were used to evaluate the probiotic potential.

Results: All strains showed good resistance in the digestion simulation process, especially DDS-1 and UALp-05, which survived up to a range of 107 to 108 CFU/mL from an initial concentration of 109 CFU/mL. Two human colonic mucus-secreting cells, HT-29 and LS174T, were used to assess the adhesion capacity, cytotoxicity/viability, and cytokine quantification. All strains exhibited good adhesion capacity. No significant cellular cytotoxicity or loss in cell viability was observed. DDS-1 and UALp-05 significantly upregulated anti-inflammatory IL-10 and downregulated pro-inflammatory TNF-α cytokine production. All the strains were able to downregulate IL-8 cytokine levels.

Conclusion: Of the 4 strains tested, DDS-1 demonstrated superior survival rates, good adhesion capacity and strong immunomodulatory effect under different experimental conditions.

Keywords: Probiotics, adhesion, gastrointestinal survival, immunomodulation

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Vemuri R, Shinde T, Shastri MD, Perera AP, Tristram S, Martoni CJ, Gundamaraju R, Ahuja KDK, Ball M, Eri R. A human origin strain Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 exhibits superior in vitro probiotic efficacy in comparison to plant or dairy origin probiotics. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(9):840-848. doi:10.7150/ijms.25004. Available from