International Journal of Medical Sciences

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23 February 2019

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Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(8):823-831. doi:10.7150/ijms.25146


Compliance with Saliva Collection Protocol in Healthy Volunteers: Strategies for Managing Risk and Errors

Kashi Raj Bhattarai1, Hyung-Ryong Kim2✉, Han-Jung Chae1✉

1. Department of Pharmacology and Institute of New Drug Development, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea;
2. Graduate School, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, 42988, Republic of Korea.


Salivary bioscience technologies such as electrophoresis are widely applied for diagnosing systemic health status. Diagnosis using a saliva sample has emerged as a preferred technique since the sample is easy to collect and the method is inexpensive and non-invasive. Salivary diagnostics have even been identified as potential substitutes for serum protein biomarkers. However, the optimal protocol for collecting saliva has not yet been established. In many scientific settings, such as randomized controlled trials, sampling and statistical errors often occur when handling samples from healthy volunteers. These errors can be due to the psychological behavior of the volunteers, subject nonadherence, questionnaire characteristics, collection methods, and/or sample processing. The purpose of the review presented here is to outline the strategies for managing the risk factors and to minimize the sampling errors during saliva collection in healthy volunteers.

Keywords: Saliva collection, healthy volunteers, salivary proteomics, psychological stress, sampling errors, risk management

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Bhattarai KR, Kim HR, Chae HJ. Compliance with Saliva Collection Protocol in Healthy Volunteers: Strategies for Managing Risk and Errors. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(8):823-831. doi:10.7150/ijms.25146. Available from