International Journal of Medical Sciences

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23 March 2018

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Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(5):492-497. doi:10.7150/ijms.22789


Decellularized Hydrogels in Bone Tissue Engineering: A Topical Review

Andrea Pacifici1, Luigi Laino2, Marco Gargari3, Federico Guzzo4, Andrea Velandia Luz5, Antonella Polimeni6, Luciano Pacifici6✉

1. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
2. Multidisciplinary department of surgical and dental specialties. University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli
3. Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy
4. Department of Dentistry "Fra G.B. Orsenigo", Ospedale San Pietro FBF, Rome, Italy
5. AgEstimation Project, Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Macerata, Macerata, Italy
6. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy


Nowadays, autograft and allograft techniques represent the main solution to improve bone repair. Unfortunately, autograft technique is expensive, invasive and subject to infections and hematoma, frequently affecting both donor sites and surgical sites. A recent advance in tissue engineering is the fabrication of cell-laden hydrogels with custom-made geometry, depending on the clinical case. The use of ECM (Extra-Cellular Matrix)-derived Hydrogels from bone tissue is the new opportunity to obtain good results in bone regeneration.

Several micro-engineering techniques and approaches are available to fabricate different cell gradients and zonal structures in hydrogels design, in combination with the advancement in biomaterials selection. In this review, we analyse the stereolithografy, the Bio-patterning, the 3D bioprinting and 3D assembly, the Laser-Induced Forward Transfer Bioprinting (LIFT), the Micro-extrusion bioprinting, the promising Electrospinning technology, the Microfluidics and the Micromolding. Several mechanical properties are taken into account for bone regeneration scaffolds. However, each typology of scaffold presents some advantages and some concerns. The research on biomaterials is the most promising for bone tissue engineering: the new biomimetic materials will allow us to obtain optimal results in the next clinical application of basic research.

Keywords: Extra Cellular Matrix, bone tissue engineering, Hydrogels

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Pacifici A, Laino L, Gargari M, Guzzo F, Velandia Luz A, Polimeni A, Pacifici L. Decellularized Hydrogels in Bone Tissue Engineering: A Topical Review. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(5):492-497. doi:10.7150/ijms.22789. Available from