International Journal of Medical Sciences

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23 February 2019

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Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(4):280-290. doi:10.7150/ijms.22793

Research Paper

Viola Yedoensis Suppresses Cell Invasion by Targeting the Protease and NF-κB Activities in A549 and Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells

She-Fang Huang 1, Shu-Chen Chu4, Yi-Hsien Hsieh2, Pei-Ni Chen2,3✉, Yih-Shou Hsieh2,3✉

1. Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, ROC
2. Institute of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Chung Shang Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan.
3. Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
4. Institute and Department of Food Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan.


Cancer metastasis is a vital trait in malignancies with complicated early diagnosis and therapeutic management. Therefore, the development of new remedies and the utilization of natural medicines that target metastasis are of great interest and have been studied extensively. Chinese medicinal herbs have various anti-carcinogenesis properties; however, the in vitro effect and mechanism of Viola yedoensis on cancer cell metastasis remains poorly understood. V. yedoensis extracts (VYE) can suppress the invasion of a highly metastatic human lung cancer cell line, A549 cells. According to gelatin zymography and casein zymography assays, VYE inhibited the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). The results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting revealed that VYE can alter the expression of proteinase inhibitor. VYE also suppressed the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B. We concluded that VYE may inhibit tumor invasion by suppressing the activities of MMP and u-PA in lung cancer cells.

Keywords: lung cancer, invasion, matrix metalloproteinase, urokinase-type plasminogen activator

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How to cite this article:
Huang SF, Chu SC, Hsieh YH, Chen PN, Hsieh YS. Viola Yedoensis Suppresses Cell Invasion by Targeting the Protease and NF-κB Activities in A549 and Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(4):280-290. doi:10.7150/ijms.22793. Available from