International Journal of Medical Sciences

Impact factor

23 January 2019

ISSN 1449-1907 News feeds of published articles

Manuscript login | Account

open access Global reach, higher impact

Journal of Genomics in PubMed Central. Submit manuscript now...


Journal of Cancer

International Journal of Biological Sciences

Journal of Genomics


Journal of Bone and Joint Infection (JBJI)


Journal of Biomedicine

PubMed Central Indexed in Journal Impact Factor

Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(4):382-389. doi:10.7150/ijms.17364

Research Paper

TGF-β Stimulates Endochondral Differentiation after Denervation

Ye Li1#, Austin Y Tian2#, Jennifer Ophene2, Mason Y Tian4, Zhenjiang Yao3, Sidong Chen3, Hongwei Li1✉, Xiaoyan Sun2,3✉, Hongyan Du1✉

1. School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China;
2. Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA;
3. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics & Guangdong Key Lab of Molecular Epidemiology, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangdong, China;
4. Department of Biology, University of Pacifica, Stockton, CA, USA.
# First two authors have equal contribution in this work.


Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional protein that induces gene expression of cartilage-specific molecules, but its exact role in the process of chondrogenesis is unclear. Because recent studies suggest that TGF-β can facilitate chondrogenic precursor cells differentiating into chondrocytes, we sought to determine whether TGF-β prevents denervation-induced reduction of endochondral bone formation in an experimental model. Mice were treated daily with recombinant human TGF-β1 (rhTGF-β1) for 3 weeks. We found that rhTGF-β1 not only prevented denervation-induced reduction of gene expression of type II collagen, type X collagen, aggrecan, Indian hedgehog, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide, but also synergized endochondral differentiation. These results demonstrate that short-term systemic administration of TGF-β substantially prevents denervation-induced reduction of endochondral bone formation via stimulating endochondral differentiation. Potential therapeutic applications will be pursued in further studies that address the molecular biological mechanism of TGF-β on endochodral bone formation after denervation in animal models.

Keywords: TGF-β1, denervation, endochondral differentiation, ColII, ColX, aggrecan.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Li Y, Tian AY, Ophene J, Tian MY, Yao Z, Chen S, Li H, Sun X, Du H. TGF-β Stimulates Endochondral Differentiation after Denervation. Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(4):382-389. doi:10.7150/ijms.17364. Available from