International Journal of Medical Sciences

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22 April 2019

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Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(4):348-355. doi:10.7150/ijms.18298

Research Paper

Maternal Active Mastication during Prenatal Stress Ameliorates Prenatal Stress-Induced Lower Bone Mass in Adult Mouse Offspring

Kagaku Azuma1✉, Minori Ogura2, Hiroko Kondo2, Ayumi Suzuki2, Sakurako Hayashi2, Mitsuo Iinuma2, Minoru Onozuka3, Kin-ya Kubo4

1. Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, 807-8555, Japan;
2. Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Asahi University School of Dentistry, 1851 Hozumi, Mizuho, Gifu, 501-0296, Japan;
3. Department of Judo Therapy and Medical Science, Faculty of Medical Science, Nippon Sport Science University, Yokohama Kanagawa, 227-0033, Japan;
4. Seijoh University Graduate School of Health Care Studies, 2-172, Fukinodai, Tokai, Aichi, 476-8588, Japan.


Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuates stress response. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that maternal active mastication influences the effect of prenatal stress on bone mass and bone microstructure in adult offspring. Pregnant ddY mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Mice in the stress and stress/chewing groups were placed in a ventilated restraint tube for 45 minutes, 3 times a day, and was initiated on day 12 of gestation and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were allowed to chew a wooden stick during the restraint stress period. The bone response of 5-month-old male offspring was evaluated using quantitative micro-CT, bone histomorphometry, and biochemical markers. Prenatal stress resulted in significant decrease of trabecular bone mass in both vertebra and distal femur of the offspring. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuated the reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption, improved the lower trabecular bone volume and bone microstructural deterioration induced by prenatal stress in the offspring. These findings indicate that maternal active mastication during prenatal stress can ameliorate prenatal stress-induced lower bone mass of the vertebra and femur in adult offspring. Active mastication during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent lower bone mass in their offspring.

Keywords: Bone histomorphometry, Chewing, Micro-CT, Osteoporosis, Prenatal stress

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Azuma K, Ogura M, Kondo H, Suzuki A, Hayashi S, Iinuma M, Onozuka M, Kubo Ky. Maternal Active Mastication during Prenatal Stress Ameliorates Prenatal Stress-Induced Lower Bone Mass in Adult Mouse Offspring. Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(4):348-355. doi:10.7150/ijms.18298. Available from