International Journal of Medical Sciences

Impact factor

23 January 2019

ISSN 1449-1907 News feeds of published articles

Manuscript login | Account

open access Global reach, higher impact

Journal of Genomics in PubMed Central. Submit manuscript now...


Journal of Cancer

International Journal of Biological Sciences

Journal of Genomics


Journal of Bone and Joint Infection (JBJI)


Journal of Biomedicine

PubMed Central Indexed in Journal Impact Factor

Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(13):1817-1829. doi:10.7150/ijms.6902

Research Paper

Evaluation of Antiviral Activities of Four Local Malaysian Phyllanthus Species against Herpes Simplex Viruses and Possible Antiviral Target

Wee Chee Tan1, Indu Bala Jaganath2, Rishya Manikam3, Shamala Devi Sekaran1✉

1. Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia.
2. Biotechnology Centre, Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Malaysia.
3. Department of Trauma and Emergency, University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia.


Nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir are effective antiviral drugs against herpes simplex virus infections since its introduction. However, with the emergence of acyclovir-resistant HSV strains particularly in immunocompromised patients, there is a need to develop an alternative antiherpetic drug and plants could be the potential lead. In this study, the antiviral activity of the aqueous extract of four Phyllanthus species were evaluated against herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in Vero cells by quantitative PCR. The protein expressions of untreated and treated infected Vero cells were studied by 2D-gel electrophoresis and Western blot. This is the first study that reported the antiviral activity of P. watsonii. P. urinaria was shown to demonstrate the strongest antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2, with SI >33.6. Time-of-addition studies suggested that the extract may act against the early infection stage and the replication stage. Protein expression studies indicated that cellular proteins that are involved in maintaining cytoskeletal structure could be potential target for development of antiviral drugs. Preliminary findings indicated that P. urinaria demonstrated potent inhibitory activity against HSV. Hence, further studies such as in vivo evaluation are required for the development of effective antiherpetic drug.

Keywords: Herpes simplex virus, Phyllanthus, antiviral, cytoskeleton.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Tan WC, Jaganath IB, Manikam R, Sekaran SD. Evaluation of Antiviral Activities of Four Local Malaysian Phyllanthus Species against Herpes Simplex Viruses and Possible Antiviral Target. Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(13):1817-1829. doi:10.7150/ijms.6902. Available from