International Journal of Medical Sciences

Impact factor

20 January 2019

ISSN 1449-1907 News feeds of published articles

Manuscript login | Account

open access Global reach, higher impact

Journal of Genomics in PubMed Central. Submit manuscript now...


Journal of Cancer

International Journal of Biological Sciences

Journal of Genomics



Journal of Biomedicine

PubMed Central Indexed in Journal Impact Factor

Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(12):1674-1682. doi:10.7150/ijms.6841

Research Paper

The Relation of the Level of Serum Anti-TF, -Tn and -Alpha-Gal IgG to Survival in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients

Eugeniy Smorodin1✉, Boris Sergeyev1, Kersti Klaamas1, Valentin Chuzmarov2, Oleg Kurtenkov1

1. Department of Oncology & Immunology, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn 11619, Estonia.
2. Department of Oncology & II Surgery, North-Estonian Medical Centre, Tallinn 13419, Estonia.


Objective: To evaluate the relation of the level of serum anti-TF, -Tn and -αGal carbohydrate antibodies to survival in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

Methods: The level of anti-TF (Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen), -Tn and -αGal IgG was analysed in the serum of patients with gastric (n = 83) and colorectal (n = 51) cancers in the long-term follow-up, using ELISA with polyacrylamide glycoconjugates. To evaluate overall survival and the risk of death, the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used in the univariate analysis of patients groups.

Results: A significantly better survival was observed: (1) in patients with an increased level of anti-TF antibodies (all, stage III, T2-4, N1-2 and G3; P = 0.004-0.038, HR = 0.16-0.46); and (2) in patients with an increased level of anti-Tn antibodies (G1-2 tumors; P = 0.034-0.042, HR = 0.34-0.47). A significantly worse survival was observed in gastrointestinal, gastric and colorectal groups with an increased level of serum anti-αGal antibodies. This association depended on the patho-morphology of tumors (all, stages I-II, III, T2-4, N0, N1-2 and G1-2; P = 0.006-0.048, HR = 1.99-2.33). In the combined assessment of the anti-TF and -αGal antibodies level of the whole gastrointestinal group (n = 53), P = 0.002, HR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.094-0.655. In the follow-up, the survival time was shorter in patients whose level of anti-αGal antibodies rose (P = 0.009-0.040, HR = 2.18-4.27). The level of anti-TF antibodies inversely correlated with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR, r = - 0.401, P = 0.004, n = 49). Patients with a higher level of anti-αGal antibodies and NLR values demonstrated a significantly worse survival (P = 0.009, HR = 2.98, n = 48).

Conclusions: The preoperative levels of anti-TF, -Tn and -αGal antibodies and their dynamics are of prognostic significance. The method for the determination of circulating anti-carbohydrate antibodies may be a useful supplement in clinical outcome assessment.

Keywords: gastrointestinal cancer, survival, Thomsen-Friedenreich, Tn, alpha-Gal, antibodies, enteric microbiota.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Smorodin E, Sergeyev B, Klaamas K, Chuzmarov V, Kurtenkov O. The Relation of the Level of Serum Anti-TF, -Tn and -Alpha-Gal IgG to Survival in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients. Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(12):1674-1682. doi:10.7150/ijms.6841. Available from