1. Department of Internal Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan, South Korea.
2. Paik Institute for Clinical Research, Inje University, Busan, South Korea.
3. Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea.
Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that protects against cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and may have pleotropic effects beyond lowering triglycerides. Many degenerative diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, are related to cellular senescence as a pathophysiological mechanism. We aimed to examine whether EPA could protect vascular endothelial cells under stress conditions against stress-induced accelerated senescence (SIAS).
Methods: Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to H2O2 as oxidative stress and a high glucose concentration with palmitate as a glucolipotoxic condition. Changes in cell viability, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase release, and cell cycle analysis were measured by cell counting kit-8 assay, annexin V/ propidium iodide staining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. EPA was applied in stress conditions. The degree of senescence was measured by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining and p16 staining using immunofluorescence. Apoptosis and cellular senescence-related proteins were measured by Western blotting.
Results: Cultured HUVECs under oxidative and glucolipotoxic stresses revealed accelerated senescence and increased apoptosis. These changes were markedly reversed by EPA administration, and the expressions of apoptosis and cellular senescence-related proteins were reversed by EPA treatment.
Conclusion: EPA effectively protects HUVECs against SIAS, which may be one of its pleotrophic effects.
Keywords: eicosapentaenoic acid, oxidative stress, stress-induced accelerated senescence