1. Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
2. Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
#: These authors contributed equally in this work.
Objective: Chronic rejection remains the main factor that influence long-term survival of patients after heart transplantation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) play critical role in macrophages-mediated transplant immune responses. We investigated the mechanism of IL-10 in macrophage related chronic rejection after mouse heart transplantation.
Methods: Mouse heart transplant chronic rejection model was established to evaluate pathological changes in the allograft. Myocardial interstitial fibrosis, apoptosis, and inflammatory factor levels were detected in ad-IL-10-treated mice. The positive iNOS+ and Arg-1+ expressions, macrophage subset changes, and the proportion of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and TIGIT+ Tregs were quantified by flow. In in vitro experiments, ad-IL-10 was transfected into macrophages followed by detection of apoptosis, phagocytosis, and CD163, CD16/32, and CD206 expression. The expression and relationships between IL-10, miR-155, and SOCS5 were also detected and verified. A rescue experiment was performed to evaluate macrophage function through the combined treatment of ad-IL-10 and overexpression of miR-155.
Results: Significantly decreased IL-10 expression in chronic rejection during mouse heart transplantation was observed. Ad-IL-10-treated mice showed decreased pathological injury, perivascular fibrosis, apoptosis, inflammation, and iNOS+ and CD16/32+ expression, and increased Treg/TIGIT+ Treg cell, Arg-1+ and CD206+ cell proportion. Ad-IL-10-treated macrophages in vitro showed reduced apoptosis, improved phagocytosis, and M2 polarization. Mechanically, IL-10 negatively regulated miR-155 to activate SOCS5. Overexpression of miR-155 reversed IL-10 mediated-positive regulation of macrophage function.
Conclusion: IL-10 downregulated miR-155 and activated SOCS5, thereby promoting macrophage M2 polarization to relieve chronic rejection after heart transplantation.
Keywords: Chronic rejection after heart transplantation, Macrophage function, IL-10, SOCS5, microRNA-155, Macrophage