1. Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya - Dr Soetomo General Academic Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia
2. Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya - Dr Soetomo General Academic Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia, Indonesia
3. Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Foggia University, Foggia, Italy
Background: According to WHO criteria, osteosarcoma (OS) consists of various histopathological subtypes. Thus, contrast-enhanced MRI is a very useful modality in the diagnosis and evaluation of osteosarcoma. Magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI) studies was used to determine the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the slope of the time-intensity curve (TIC). This study aimed to determine the correlation between ADC and TIC analysis using %Slope and maximum enhancement (ME) of histopathological osteosarcoma subtypes.
Methods: This was a retrospective study with observational analysis on OS patients. The obtained data were 43 samples. Moreover, the interpretation was conducted by placing three regions of interest (ROI) in determining ADC value. It was observed by two radiologist observers with more than 10 years of experience. In this case, as many as six obtained ROIs were averaged. The inter-observer agreement was evaluated by Kappa test. TIC curve was analyzed and slope value was obtained afterward. Through SPSS 21 software, the data was analyzed.
Results: The mean of ADC values of OS was (1.031x10-3±0.31mm2/s), where the highest value was found in chondroblastic subtype (1.470 x10-3±0.31mm2/s). However, the mean of TIC %slope of OS was (45.3%/s), where the highest result was found in the osteoblastic subtype (70.8%/s) followed by small cell subtype (60.8%/s) and the mean of ME of OS was 100.55% with the highest values was in osteoblastic subtype 172.72% followed by chondroblastic subtype (144.92%). This study found a significant correlation between the mean of ADC value and the OS histopathologic results as well as the correlation between the mean of ADC value and ME.
Conclusion: The various types of osteosarcoma have a characteristic of radiological appearances which may similar to some bone tumor entities. The analysis of ADC values and TIC curves using % slope and ME of osteosarcoma subtypes can improve the accuracy of diagnosis as well as the monitoring of the treatment response and the disease progression.
Keywords: Osteosarcoma, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), Slope Time Intensity Curve (TIC), Osteosarcoma histopathology