Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(10):2239-2244. doi:10.7150/ijms.53668

Research Paper

Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and Complete Blood Cell Count-Derived Measures in Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

Antonio Pinna1,2✉, Paola Carlino1, Rita Serra3, Francesco Boscia4, Stefano Dore1, Ciriaco Carru2,3, Angelo Zinellu3

1. Department of Medical, Surgical, and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
2. Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
3. Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
4. Section of Ophthalmology, Department of Basic Medical Science, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

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Citation:
Pinna A, Carlino P, Serra R, Boscia F, Dore S, Carru C, Zinellu A. Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and Complete Blood Cell Count-Derived Measures in Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy. Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(10):2239-2244. doi:10.7150/ijms.53668. Available from https://www.medsci.org/v18p2239.htm

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Abstract

Purpose: To assess the role of complete blood cell count (CBC) dimensional indices and CBC-derived measures in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION).

Methods: In this retrospective case-control survey, 37 newly diagnosed NA-AION patients and 37 sex- and age-matched cataract controls were enrolled in 2017-2018. On the same day of NA-AION diagnosis, a blood sample was collected and CBC was determined using an automatic blood counter. CBC dimensional indices, such as mean platelet volume (MPV) and red cell distribution width (RDW), and CBC-combined indices, including neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR [dNLR = neutrophils/(white blood cells - neutrophils)], and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), were evaluated. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured.

Results: Mean platelet count, median MPV, RDW, NLR, and dNLR were 221±48 x 109/L, 8.2 fL (IQR=7.6-8.9), 13% (IQR=12-14.5), 2.50 (IQR=1.77-3.06), and 1.73 (IQR=1.31-2.07) in NA-AION patients and 248±56 x 109/L, 7.60 fL (IQR=7.05-8.25), 12% (IQR=11.6-13), 1.95 (IQR=1.43-2.49) and 1.36 (IQR=1.07-1.69) in controls. NA-AION patients showed significantly lower platelet count (p=0.03) and significantly higher median values of MPV (p=0.01), RDW (p=0.015), NLR (p=0.03), and dNLR (p=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression models disclosed a significant correlation only between higher levels of RDW and NA-AION (p≤0.05). The attributable risk of the association between NA-AION and RDW was 33%.

Conclusions: Results suggest that RDW may be somehow involved in the pathogenesis of NA-AION. However, high-quality cohort studies are warranted to confirm whether, or not, an altered RDW may be considered a potential biomarker of this vascular disorder affecting the optic nerve.

Keywords: Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (NA-AION), Mean Platelet Volume (MPV), Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW), Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR)