Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(18):3165-3173. doi:10.7150/ijms.50852

Research Paper

Effects of one-lung flooding on porcine haemodynamics and gas exchange

Thomas Lesser1✉, Frank Wolfram1, Conny Braun2, Reiner Gottschall3

1. Department Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, SRH Wald-Klinikum Gera, Teaching Hospital of Jena University Hospital, Strasse des Friedens 122, Gera D-07548, Germany.
2. Central Experimental Animal Facility, University Hospital Jena, Location Dornburger Strasse 23a, Jena D-07743, Germany.
3. Doctor Emeritus, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, Jena D-07747, Germany.

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Lesser T, Wolfram F, Braun C, Gottschall R. Effects of one-lung flooding on porcine haemodynamics and gas exchange. Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(18):3165-3173. doi:10.7150/ijms.50852. Available from

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Background and aim: We established a porcine model of one-lung flooding (OLF) that can be used for research on the use of ultrasound for lung tumour detection, ultrasound-guided transthoracic needle biopsy, and tumour ablation. However, OLF requires one-lung ventilation (OLV) and eliminates the recruitment strategies of the nonventilated lung. During thoracic surgery, OLV alone can be associated with hypoxia, hypercapnia, and right ventricular overload. Here, we examined whether OLF influences haemodynamics and gas exchange indices during and after OLV/OLF compared with OLV/apnoea and two-lung ventilation (TLV) following deflooding.

Methods: Fourteen pigs were included in this study: five were allocated to the control group (CO) and nine were assigned to the OLF group (OLF). Assessments of haemodynamics, gas exchange, and lung sonography were performed after baseline measurements, during OLV/apnoea, OLV/OLF, and after deflooding and TLV. The volume of extravascular lung water was also measured.

Results: OLF induced no significant deterioration of oxygenation or ventilation during OLF or after deflooding and TLV. Color-coded duplex sonography of the pulmonary artery in the flooded lung demonstrated an oscillating flow that corresponded to intrapulmonary circulatory arrest. After flooding of the nonventilated lung, the partial pressure of O2 in the arterial blood increased and the shunt fraction decreased significantly compared to OLV/apnoea conditions. After deflooding and TLV, haemodynamics and gas exchange indices showed no differences compared to the CO group and baseline values, respectively.

Conclusions: OLF is safe to use during acute animal experimentation. No clinically relevant deterioration of haemodynamics or gas exchange occurred during or after OLF. Due to the circulatory arrest in the flooded lung, the right-to-left shunt volume in the nonventilated lung was minimized. Survival experiments are necessary to further assess the utility of this method.

Keywords: orcine model of one-lung flooding, haemodynamics, gas exchange