Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(18):2974-2986. doi:10.7150/ijms.50537 This issue

Review

Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients with Pre-existing, Compromised Immune Systems: A Review of Case Reports

Tanner Corse1*, Linda Dayan1*, Sydney Kersten1*, Fortunato Battaglia2, Stanley R Terlecky2, Zhiyong Han2✉

1. Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, Nutley, NJ 07110, USA
2. Department of Medical Sciences, Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, Nutley, NJ 07110, USA.
*These authors contributed equally

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Citation:
Corse T, Dayan L, Kersten S, Battaglia F, Terlecky SR, Han Z. Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients with Pre-existing, Compromised Immune Systems: A Review of Case Reports. Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(18):2974-2986. doi:10.7150/ijms.50537. Available from https://www.medsci.org/v17p2974.htm

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Abstract

In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, all COVID-19 patients are naïve patients as it is the first-time humans have been exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. As with exposure to many viruses, individuals with pre-existing, compromised immune systems may be at increased risk of developing severe symptoms and/or dying because of (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To learn more about such individuals, we conducted a search and review of published reports on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with pre-existing, compromised immune systems. Here we present our review of patients who possess pre-existing primary antibody deficiency (PAD) and those who are organ transplant recipients on maintenance immunosuppressants. Our review indicates different clinical outcomes for the patients with pre-existing PAD, depending on the underlying causes. For organ transplant recipients, drug-induced immune suppression alone does not appear to enhance COVID-19 mortality risk - rather, advanced age, comorbidities, and the development of secondary complications appears required.