1. School of Geriatric Oral Health, Institute of Dentistry, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.
2. Laboratory of Cell-Based Assays and Innovations, School of Biotechnology, Institute of Agricultural Technology, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.
3. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Xerostomia (dry mouth) is a significant age-related condition. Meanwhile, cordycepin, the natural therapeutic agent, has demonstrated an anti-aging effect. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the preventive effects of cordycepin on secretory function in an in vitro model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced salivary hypofunction. After being exposed to H2O2, human submandibular gland (HSG) cells were treated with various concentrations of cordycepin (6.25-50 µM) for 24, 48, and 72h. To evaluate cell proliferation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and 2, 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assays were performed. The amylase activity was kinetically measured by 2-chloro-p-nitrophenol linked with maltotrioside. The expression of salivary, antioxidant and apoptotic markers at mRNA and protein levels were performed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence analysis, respectively. We demonstrated that cordycepin (6.25-25 µM) contributed to significant increases in expression of the salivary marker genes, alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1A) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5), and in amylase secretion without changes in cell viability. Under oxidative stress, HSG cells showed remarkable dysfunction. Cordycepin rescued the protective effects partially by decreasing ROS generation and restoring the expression of the salivary proteins, AMY and AQP5 via anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. In addition, the amount of amylase that was secreted from HSG cells cultured in cordycepin was increased. In conclusion, cordycepin demonstrated a protective effect on H2O2-induced HSG cells by decreasing ROS generation and upregulating the salivary function markers, AMY1A and AQP5, at both the transcriptional and translational levels.
Keywords: cordycepin, salivary gland, xerostomia, saliva, dry mouth