1. Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, China.
2. Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, China.
3. Department of Gastroenterology, Jieyang People's Hospital, Jieyang, China.
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Background: Patients with Wilson disease (WD) progress to cirrhosis at an early age but have good prognoses. This study aimed to delineate hepatic features in WD patients with or without cirrhosis.
Methods: Medical data were retrospectively collected from 27 July 2015 to 27 June 2018. WD patients were divided into two groups based on whether or not they progressed to cirrhosis. Liver function, portal hypertension features and hematocytopenia rates were compared between groups.
Results: The study enrolled 119 WD patients with cirrhosis and 53 WD patients without cirrhosis. There were no differences between groups for liver enzyme levels or incidence rates of Kayser-Fleischer ring (all P > 0.05). Ascites and hepatic encephalopathy were nearly absent in both groups, and almost all patients were Child-Pugh group A. However, WD-associated cirrhotic patients had a higher prothrombin time (beta = 0.908, P = 0.004) and international normalized ratio (beta = 0.089, P = 0.040), wider portal vein diameter (beta = 1.330, P < 0.001), and an increased risk of splenomegaly/splenectomy (odds ratio [OR] = 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.15-8.84, P < 0.001). Moreover, WD-associated cirrhotic patients have significantly increased risks of leukopenia (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.00-5.25, P = 0.049) and thrombocytopenia (OR = 6.89, 95% CI: 2.01-23.59, P = 0.002).
Conclusions: Despite presenting good outcomes, mild hepatocyte injury, and good hepatic metabolic function, WD-associated cirrhotic patients show more serious impairment of hepatic synthetic function, wider portal vein diameter, and higher risk of splenomegaly due to portal hypertension.
Keywords: Wilson disease, Cirrhosis, Liver dysfunction, Portal hypertension, Splenomegaly