Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(14):1600-1610. doi:10.7150/ijms.27683 This issue Cite
1. Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China
2. Department of Neurology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Most intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs) involve the transverse-sigmoid sinus (TSS), and various types of endovascular treatment (EVT) have been involved in managing TSS DAVFs. A current, comprehensive review of the EVT of TSS DAVFs is lacking. This study used the PubMed database to perform a literature review on TSS DAVFs to increase the current understanding of this condition. For high-grade TSS DAVFs such as Borden type 3, the goal of EVT is curative treatment. However, for low-grade TSS DAVFs such as Borden type 1 and some Borden type 2 TSS DAVFs, symptom relief or elimination of cortical reflux may be sufficient. Currently, EVT has become the first-line treatment for TSS DAVFs, including transarterial embolization (TAE), transvenous embolization (TVE) or both. TAE alone and TSS balloon-assisted TAE are also commonly used. However, TVE for TSS DAVFs is recognized as the most effective treatment, including coil direct packing TSS, Onyx® (ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer) TVE, and balloon-assisted Onyx® TVE, which are commonly applied. In addition, TSS reconstructive treatment can be an effective procedure to treat TSS DAVFs. EVT is accompanied with complications, including technique- and treatment-related complications. Although complications may occur, TSS DAVFs have an acceptable prognosis after EVT.
Keywords: endovascular treatment, dural arteriovenous fistula, transverse-sigmoid sinus, review