1. Research Area for Multifactorial Diseases, Children's Hospital Bambino Gesù, Rome, Italy;
2. Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital and Clinical Institute, Faculty of Health, Aalborg University.
Atherosclerosis origins early in childhood. Aim of the study was to investigate vascular signature and phenotypes of cardiovascular disease in obese children and adolescents identifying novel potential circulating markers of risk.
Cross-sectional study of intima-media-thickness (IMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIX@75), circulating markers (E-selectin, soluble-intercellular-adhesion-molecule1_ICAM1, chemerin, fatty-acid-binding protein 4, sCD36, lipopolysaccharides_LPS, oxLDL, fetuin) in 123 obese (body mass index, BMI z-score >1.645 SD) children (N=55, age ≤10 years-old) and adolescents (N=68, age >10 years-old).
Adolescents had significantly higher uric acid (p=0.002), non-HDL-cholesterol (p=0.02), fasting glucose (p=0.04), systolic blood pressure (p=0.005) and PWV (p=0.02) than children.
Obese adolescent patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) abnormalities had higher PWV (p<0.05) than peers without. No differences were observed in circulating biomarkers in relationship to age and MetS status. oxLDL, sCD36 and LPS were correlated to AIX@75 and/or IMTM in children and adolescents (p ranging from <0.05 to <0.0001). Total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, TG/HDL ratio, oxLDL, sCD36, ICAM1, LPS were significantly different across AIX@75 tertiles (p between 0.03 and 0.001).
Early phenotypes of cardiovascular alterations in young severely obese patients encompass increased IMT, stiffness of intermediate size and resistance vasculature. Novel biomarkers investigated in the present study were associated to estimates of stiffness and thickness not differently from traditional risk factor such as non-HDL-cholesterol and TG/HDL ratio.
Keywords: arterial stiffness, arterial thickness, children obesity, oxidized LDL, pulse wave velocity, sCD36.