Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(4):310-318. doi:10.7150/ijms.18127

Research Paper

Bladder Reconstruction with Human Amniotic Membrane in a Xenograft Rat Model: A Preclinical Study

Dimitri Barski1✉, Holger Gerullis2, Thorsten Ecke3, Jin Yang4, Gabriella Varga5, Mihaly Boros5, Isabel Pintelon6, Jean-Pierre Timmermans6, Thomas Otto1

1. Department of Urology, Lukas Hospital Neuss, Germany;
2. University Hospital for Urology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg, Germany;
3. Department of Urology, Helios Hospital, Bad Saarow, Germany.
4. Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University, Chengdu, China.
5. Institute of Experimental Surgery, University of Szeged, Hungary.
6. University of Antwerp, Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Antwerp, Belgium.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
Barski D, Gerullis H, Ecke T, Yang J, Varga G, Boros M, Pintelon I, Timmermans JP, Otto T. Bladder Reconstruction with Human Amniotic Membrane in a Xenograft Rat Model: A Preclinical Study. Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(4):310-318. doi:10.7150/ijms.18127. Available from

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Background: Human amniotic membranes (HAMs) are assumed to have a number of unique characteristics including durability, hypoallergenic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Materials and Methods: Multilayer HAMs from caesarian sections were applied to repair defined bladder defects in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 42 days after implantation. Bladder volume capacity after grafting was measured. Histological analyses were performed to asses a number of parameters including HAM degradation, inflammatory reaction, graft rejection and smooth muscle ingrowth.

Results: One rat died from sepsis in the treated group. No severe complications or signs of leakage were observed. Bladder capacity did not change over time. The initially increased inflammation in the HAM group diminished significantly over time (p<0.05). No signs of HAM degradation were observed and smooth muscle staining increased over time.

Conclusions: HAMs appear to be durable and hypoallergenic grafts. The assumed suitability for the reconstruction of urinary tract justifies further research on detailed immunological process in larger grafts.

Keywords: amniotic membrane, bladder augmentation, graft, rat experiment, IDEAL.