1. Department of Oral Physiology, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Japan
2. Department of Oral Pathology and Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
3. Department of Hard Tissue Research, Matsumoto Dental University Graduate School of Oral Medicine, Shiojiri, Japan
4. Department of Orthodontics, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Japan
Background: Bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) have abilities of cell migration and differentiation into tissues/organs in the body and related with the differentiation of teeth or periodontal tissue including fibroblasts. Then, we examined the effect of orthodontic mechanical stress to the transplanted BMC migration into periodontal tissues using BMC transplantation model.
Material and Method: BMC from green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic mice were transplanted into 8-week-old female C57BL/6 immunocompromised recipient mice, which had undergone 10 Gy of lethal whole-body-irradiation. Five mice as experimental group were received orthodontic mechanical stress using separator between first molar (M1) and second molar (M2) 1 time per week for 5 weeks and 5 mice as control group were not received mechanical stress. The maxilla with M1 and M2 was removed and was immunohistochemically analyzed using a Dako Envision + Kit-K4006 and a primary anti-GFP-polyclonal rabbit antibody. Immunohistochemically stained was defined as positive area and the pixel number of positive area in the periodontal tissue was compared with the previously calculated total pixel number of the periodontal tissue.
Results: The immunohistochemistry revealed that GFP positive cells were detected in the periodontal tissues, both in the experimental and control specimens. The ratio of pixel number in the examination group showed 5.77 ± 3.24 % (mean ± SD); and that in the control group, 0.71±0.45 % (mean ± SD). The examination group was significantly greater than that of control group (Mann-Whitney U test: p<0.001).
Conclusion: These results suggest that orthodontic mechanical stress accelerates transplanted BMC migration into periodontal tissues.
Keywords: bone marrow-derived cell (BMC), periodontal tissue, green fluorescent protein (GFP), mechanical stress, fibroblast.