Int J Med Sci 2012; 9(9):786-792. doi:10.7150/ijms.4563
Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters
1. Baskent University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Konya, Turkey;
2. Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.
Guven A, Tolun F. Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters. Int J Med Sci 2012; 9(9):786-792. doi:10.7150/ijms.4563. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v09p0786.htm
Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels.
Methods: In the study, participants were 48 Maras powder users, 50 cigarette smokers and 45 nontobacco user subjects. Blood samples were collected and hematological parameters and lipid parameters were measured. Plasma Nitric oxide level was also detected by using the Griess method.
Results: Plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride levels were significantly higher in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group than in the nontobacco user group (p<0.001). Plasma HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group than in the nontobacco user group (p<0.001). Plasma Nitric oxide levels were found significantly lower in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group compared to the nontobacco user group (4.9±0.9 µmol/l, 4.8±1 µmol/l, 9.4±3.4 µmol/l, respectively, p<0.001) whereas there was no significant difference between the Maras powder and cigarette smokers group. In multivariate logistic regression model, cigarette smoking (Odds ratio=17.832, p<0.001), Maras powder usage (Odds ratio=12.311, p=0.002) and mean platelet volume (Odds ratio=1.425, p=0.030) remained independently associated with lower Nitric oxide levels.
Conclusion: We conclude that Maras powder has similar adverse effects on nitric oxide level and cardiovascular risk parameters and thereby it appears to be harmful as cigarette smoking.
Keywords: Maras powder, smokeless tobacco, nitric oxide, cigarette.