1. Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2. Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3. Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical Industry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4. Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
5. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
6. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, 600 South 43rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
The aim of this work was to study the ability of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) or hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to ameliorate the induction of gastric ulcers by a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin or piroxicam, in rats exposed to restraint and hypothermic stress at 4 °C. Using oral gavage, rats fasted for 72 h were administered the equivalent of a 100 mg/kg dose of the assigned drug, alone or with the designated cyclodextrin (CD). The rats were placed in suitable rodent restrainers and then placed inside a ventilated refrigerator maintained at a temperature of 4 °C. Six hours later, each animal was removed, anaesthetized with ether, and the abdomen opened. Each stomach was removed, opened along the greater curvature and gently rinsed with isotonic saline solution. The induced gastric ulcers were examined and assessed with the help of a 10x binocular magnifier. Pronounced and marked gastric ulceration with complete loss of the mucosa, extensive deposition of fibrin and dense neutrophilic infiltrate were observed in rats treated with each of the drugs alone. Treatment with indomethacin or piroxicam alone induced ulcer indices of 26 ± 2.3 or 14 ± 1.8, respectively. However, β-CD and HP-β-CD each significantly suppressed ulceration due to restraint and cold stress. Rats treated with indomethacin or piroxicam in the presence of either β-CD or HP-β-CD exhibited normal tissues. Therefore, β-CD and HP-β-CD act as protective agents against gastrointestinal disorders produced by restraint and cold stress, even with the added stress from administration of either indomethacin or piroxicam.
Keywords: β-cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin, indomethacin, piroxicam, gastric ulcers, histological examination