Int J Med Sci 2004; 1(3):152-164. doi:10.7150/ijms.1.152


An Increased Risk of Osteoporosis during Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

N. Annapoorna, G.Venkateswara Rao, N.S. Reddy, P. Rambabu1, K.R.S.Samabasiva Rao

Centre for Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar, Guntur- 522 510, A.P., India.
1Department of Venereology, GGH/SMC, NTR University Of Health Sciences, Vijayawada-520 002, A.P., India.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
Annapoorna N, Rao GV, Reddy NS, Rambabu P, Rao KRSS. An Increased Risk of Osteoporosis during Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Int J Med Sci 2004; 1(3):152-164. doi:10.7150/ijms.1.152. Available from

File import instruction


Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and mechanistic imbalances of bone tissue that may result in reduced skeletal strength and an enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis in its most common form affects the elderly (both sexes) and all racial groups of human beings. Multiple environmental risk factors like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are believed to be one of the causes of osteoporosis. Recently a high incidence of osteoporosis has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. The etiology of this occurrence in HIV infections is controversial. This problem seems to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. In AIDS, the main suggested risk factors for the development of osteoporosis are use of protease inhibitors, longer duration of HIV infection, lower body weight before antiretroviral therapy, high viral load. Variations in serum parameters like osteocalcin, c-telopeptide, levels of elements like Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, concentration of vitamin-D metabolites, lactate levels, bicarbonate concentrations, amount of alkaline phosphatase are demonstrated in the course of development of osteoporosis. OPG/RANKL/RANK system is final mediator of bone remodeling. Bone mineral density (BMD) test is of added value to assess the risk of osteoporosis in patients infected with AIDS. The biochemical markers also aid in this assessment. Clinical management mostly follows the lines of treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, AIDS, HIV, Bone mineral density, HAART, Protease inhibitor, OPG/RANKL/RANK