Int J Med Sci 2022; 19(7):1138-1146. doi:10.7150/ijms.72646 This issue
1. Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, Hungkuang University, Taichung 43302, Taiwan.
2. Division of Renal Medicine, Tungs' Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung 43503, Taiwan.
3. College of Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.
4. Department of Biotechnology and Animal Science, National Ilan University, Yilan 26407, Taiwan.
5. Program of Indigenous Education in College of Bioresources, National Ilan University, Yilan, 26407 Taiwan.
6. Department of Medical Research, Tungs' Taichung Metroharbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
7. Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.
8. Institute of Translational Medicine and New Drug Development, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.
9. Drug Development Center, Research Center for Cancer Biology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.
10. Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.
11. Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan.
12. Department of Emergency Medicine, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei 23142, Taiwan.
13. Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 97002, Taiwan.
#These authors contributed equally to this work.
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), protein-bound uremic toxins, can induce oxidative stress and cause renal disease progression. However, the different cytotoxic effects on renal cells between IS and PCS are not stated. Due to uremic toxins are generally found in CKD patients, the mechanisms of uremic toxins-induced renal injury are required to study. Curcumin has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects which may be potential used to protect against renal damage. In contrast, curcumin also exert cytotoxic effects on various cells. In addition, curcumin may reduce or enhance cytotoxicity combined with different chemicals treatments. However, whether curcumin may influence uremic toxins-induced renal injury is unclear. The goal of this study is to compare the different cytotoxic effects on renal cells between IS and PCS treatment, as well as the synergistic or antagonistic effects by combination treatments with curcumin and PCS. Our experimental result shows the PCS exerts a stronger antiproliferative effect on renal tubular cells than IS treatment. In addition, our study firstly demonstrates that curcumin enhances PCS-induced cell cytotoxicity through caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway and cell cycle alteration.
Keywords: Indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, Curcumin