Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(4):536-542. doi:10.7150/ijms.38679

Review

Abdominal wall endometriosis (a narrative review)

Mara Carsote1, Dana Cristiana Terzea2, Ana Valea3, Ancuta-Augustina Gheorghisan-Galateanu4✉

1. Department of Endocrinology, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474, Bucharest, Romania; “C.I. Parhon” National Institute of Endocrinology, 011863, Bucharest, Romania
2. Department of Pathology, “C.I. Parhon” National Institute of Endocrinology, 011863, Bucharest, Romania
3. Department of Endocrinology, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400012, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
4. Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology and Histology, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474, Bucharest, Romania; “C.I. Parhon” National Institute of Endocrinology, 011863, Bucharest, Romania

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Citation:
Carsote M, Terzea DC, Valea A, Gheorghisan-Galateanu AA. Abdominal wall endometriosis (a narrative review). Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(4):536-542. doi:10.7150/ijms.38679. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v17p0536.htm

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Abstract

One of the rarest forms of endometriosis is abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE), which includes caesarean scar endometriosis. AWE remains a challenging condition because some issues related to this topic are still under debate. The increasing number of caesarean sections and laparotomies will expect to increase the rate of AWE. The current incidence in obstetrical and gynaecological procedures is still unknown. The disease is probably underestimated. The pathogenic mechanism involves local environment at the implant site including local inflammation and metalloproteinases activation due to local growth factors, estrogen stimulation through estrogen receptors and potential epigenetic changes. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully explained, and we need more experimental models to understand them. The clinical presentation is heterogeneous; the patient may be seen by a gynaecologist, an endocrinologist, a general surgeon, an imaging specialist, or even an oncologist. No particular constellation of clinical risk factors has been identified, and the histological report is the major diagnostic tool for confirmation. Surgery is the first line of therapy. Further on we need protocols for multidisciplinary investigations and approaches.

Keywords: endometriosis, abdominal wall endometriosis, caesarean scar endometriosis