Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(7):939-948. doi:10.7150/ijms.32629

Research Paper

Assessment of abdominal aortic calcification by computed tomography for prediction of latent left ventricular stiffness and future cardiovascular risk in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease: A single center cross-sectional study

Kenji Furusawa1,2, Kyosuke Takeshita1,2,3, Susumu Suzuki1, Yosuke Tatami1, Ryota Morimoto1, Takahiro Okumura1, Yoshinari Yasuda4, Toyoaki Murohara1✉

1. Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
2. Department of Clinical Laboratory, Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.
3. Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saitama Medical Centre, Saitama Medical University, Kawagoe, Japan.
4. Department of CKD Initiatives Internal Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Abstract

Introduction: There is general interest in finding clinical markers for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), a major cause of cardiorenal syndrome leading to heart failure in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim was to assess the utility of computed tomography (CT)-based abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) for the prediction of LVDD and prognosis of asymptomatic pre-dialysis CKD patients.

Materials and methods: We prospectively evaluated 218 pre-dialysis CKD patients [median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); 40.9 mL/min/1.73m²]. Non-contrast CT scan and echocardiography were performed to determine the aortic calcification index (ACI) as a semi-quantitative measure of AAC.

Results: The median ACI was 11.4. AAC and LVDD were diagnosed in 193 patients (89%) and 75 patients (34%), respectively. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the estimation of LVDD, ACI of 20 showed optimal sensitivity (52.0%) and specificity (62.8 %) (AUC = 0.664, p < .001). High ACI group included more patients with LVDD-related factors, such as old age, hypertension, diabetes, and more severe CKD. LVDD was significantly more common in patients with high ACI group [39 (50%) and 36 (26%), respectively, p<0.001]. Multivariate analysis showed that ACI correlated significantly with E/A (β=-0.993, p=0.003), E/e' (β=0.077, p<0.001), and cardio-ankle vascular index (β=0.209, p=0.001). Correspondingly, E/e' correlated with logBNP and log(ACI+1), and increased proportionately and significantly with the quartiles of ACI values. Cox proportional hazard models showed that ACI was an independent predictor of CV outcome (hazard ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.06, p=0.029).

Conclusion: The results would suggest the usefulness of AAC assessment by CT to predict latent LVDD and future CV risk in asymptomatic pre-dialysis CKD patients.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, abdominal aortic calcification, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, cardiorenal syndrome

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How to cite this article:
Furusawa K, Takeshita K, Suzuki S, Tatami Y, Morimoto R, Okumura T, Yasuda Y, Murohara T. Assessment of abdominal aortic calcification by computed tomography for prediction of latent left ventricular stiffness and future cardiovascular risk in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease: A single center cross-sectional study. Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(7):939-948. doi:10.7150/ijms.32629. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v16p0939.htm