Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(6):838-844. doi:10.7150/ijms.32440

Review

Nocardiosis in Kidney Disease Patients under Immunosuppressive Therapy: Case Report and Literature Review

Tao Wang1*✉, Yun Jia2*, Bao Chu3, HongTao Liu4, XiaoLi Dong3, Yan Zhang5

1. Department of Science and Education, HeBei General Hospital, No.348 West HePing Boulevard, ShiJiaZhuang 050051, P.R. China.
2. Department of Clinical Immunology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, No.127 West Changle Road, Xi'an 710032, P.R. China.
3. Department of Neurology, No.348 West HePing Boulevard, ShiJiaZhuang 050051, P.R. China.
4. Department of Pharmacology, No.348 West HePing Boulevard, ShiJiaZhuang 050051, P.R. China.
5. Department of Dermatology, the 4th Affiliated Hospital of HeBei Medical University, No.12 JianKang Road, ShiJiaZhuang 050011, P.R. China.
*Equal Contribution as first author

Abstract

The increased use of novel and powerful immunosuppressive drugs in kidney diseases may concomitantly expose the patients to higher risk of opportunistic infections, some of which still remain underdiagnosed thus mishandled. As such, we recently had a less prepared encounter of pulmonary nocardial infection in an ANCA-associated renal vasculitis patient under steroid therapy. Despite the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials including micafungin, the infection was still unbridled and eventually culminated in lethal brain abscess.

We thus chose to renew the knowledge of the clinical features, imaging manifestations, differential diagnosis, specific laboratory tests and unique treatment about this rare infection in kidney diseases patients under immunosuppressive therapy. In addition, CT images of easily confused pulmonary lesions superimposed on kidney diseases were also retrieved from our depository. Moreover, impaired renal function as a risk factor for infection and pharmacological options for the treatment were also focused.

By sharing our hard-learnt experience and reviewing the literatures, our report may contribute to the awareness among the clinicians in general and nephrologists in particular of this rare disease in susceptible patients and facilitate a swift thus life-saving treatment.

Keywords: kidney diseases, immunosuppression, opportunistic infection, nocardiosis, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

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How to cite this article:
Wang T, Jia Y, Chu B, Liu H, Dong X, Zhang Y. Nocardiosis in Kidney Disease Patients under Immunosuppressive Therapy: Case Report and Literature Review. Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(6):838-844. doi:10.7150/ijms.32440. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v16p0838.htm