Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(4):494-500. doi:10.7150/ijms.30380

Research Paper

Anti-Cancer Effects of Sulfasalazine and Vitamin E Succinate in MDA-MB 231 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

Chyou-Wei Wei1,2*, Yung-Luen Yu3,4,5,6*, Ji-Ying Lu1*, Yu-Ting Hung 1,3, Hsiao-Chun Liu1,7, Giou-Teng Yiang8,9✉

1. Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, Hungkuang University, Taichung 433
2. Departments of Nursing, Hungkuang University, Taichung 433
3. Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404
4. Drug Development Center, China Medical University, Taichung 404
5. Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404
6. Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 413
7. Department of Nursing, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei 231
8. Department of Emergency Medicine, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei 231
9. Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan, R.O.C.
*The authors contributed equally to this study.

Abstract

Aim: Sulfasalazine (SSZ) displayed anti-cancer activities. Vitamin E succinate (VES) could inhibit cell growth in various cancer cells. However, chemical therapies were often not useful for triple-negative breast cancer cells (TNBCs) treatment. Here, this study investigated the anti-cancer effects and the mechanisms on TNBCs under combination treatment with SSZ and VES.

Methods: Cell viability was analyzed by using the MTT assay. The H2O2 levels were determined by using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence method. In addition, caspase and MAPs signals were studied by using western blotting.

Results: Low-dose VES antagonized the SSZ-induced cytotoxicity effects while high-dose VES promoted the SSZ-induced cytotoxicity effects on TNBCs. In addition, SSZ alone treatment activated both caspase-3 and ERK signals, however, VES alone treatment only activated JNK signals. On the other hand, activation of caspase-3, JNK, and ERK were found in SSZ plus VES-treated cells.

Conclusion: Combined SSZ and VES has synergistic or antagonistic cytotoxic effects depending on VES concentration. In addition, different cytotoxic signals are induced on SSZ-treated, VES-treated and SSZ plus VES-treated cells.

Keywords: vitamin E succinate, sulfasalazine, triple-negative breast cancer cells

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How to cite this article:
Wei CW, Yu YL, Lu JY, Hung YT, Liu HC, Yiang GT. Anti-Cancer Effects of Sulfasalazine and Vitamin E Succinate in MDA-MB 231 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells. Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(4):494-500. doi:10.7150/ijms.30380. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v16p0494.htm