International Journal of Medical Sciences

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18 February 2019

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Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(3):376-383. doi:10.7150/ijms.30227

Research Paper

Efficacy of Single-Dose Dexmedetomidine Combined with Low-Dose Remifentanil Infusion for Cough Suppression Compared to High-Dose Remifentanil Infusion: A Randomized, Controlled, Non-Inferiority Trial

Jae Hwan Kim1*, Sung Yeon Ham2*, Do-Hyeong Kim2, Chul Ho Chang2, Jeong Soo Lee2✉

1. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Korea University, Ansan Hospital, Kyung-gi-do, Korea
2. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
*These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Background: Combination of dexmedetomidine and opioid may be an alternative to high-dose opioid in attenuating cough during emergence from anesthesia, while also reducing the adverse effects of high-dose opioid. We tested the hypothesis that a single-dose of dexmedetomidine combined with low-dose remifentanil infusion during emergence would not be inferior to high-dose remifentanil infusion alone in attenuating cough after thyroidectomy.

Methods: One hundred sixty-nine patients undergoing thyroidectomy were enrolled and randomized in a 1:1 ratio into group DR or group R. Each patient received an infusion of dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg) and low-dose remifentanil infusion of effect-site concentration (Ce) at 1 ng/mL or normal saline and high-dose remifentanil infusion of Ce at 2 ng/mL for 10 min at the end of surgery. Remifentanil was maintained until tracheal extubation. Primary endpoint was the severity of coughing, which was assessed for non-inferiority using a four-point scale at the time of extubation. For comparison of coughing incidence during emergence, coughing grade was also measured at three times: before extubation, at extubation, and after extubation. Time to awakening, hemodynamic and respiratory profile, pain, and postoperative nausea and vomiting were also evaluated for superiority.

Results: The 95% confidence intervals for differences in cough grade during tracheal extubation were <0.9, indicating non-inferiority of the single dose of dexmedetomidine combined with low-dose remifentanil infusion. The incidence of coughing was similar in the two groups. Hemodynamic changes during tracheal extubation were attenuated, but emergence from anesthesia was delayed, in group DR. Use of rescue antiemetic was similar in both groups, but the incidence of vomiting was less in group DR.

Conclusion: A single-dose of dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg) combined with low-dose remifentanil infusion at 1 ng/mL of Ce during emergence from sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia was not inferior to high-dose remifentanil infusion alone at 2 ng/mL of Ce with regard to suppressing cough.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Kim JH, Ham SY, Kim DH, Chang CH, Lee JS. Efficacy of Single-Dose Dexmedetomidine Combined with Low-Dose Remifentanil Infusion for Cough Suppression Compared to High-Dose Remifentanil Infusion: A Randomized, Controlled, Non-Inferiority Trial. Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(3):376-383. doi:10.7150/ijms.30227. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v16p0376.htm