International Journal of Medical Sciences

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15 December 2018

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Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(14):1764-1770. doi:10.7150/ijms.28656

Research Paper

Effectiveness of Eccentric Exercise and a Vibration or Cryotherapy Program in Enhancing Rectus Abdominis Muscle Thickness and Inter-Rectus Distance in Patients with Chronic Mid-Portion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Carlos Romero-Morales1, Pedro Javier Martín-Llantino1, César Calvo-Lobo2✉, Hector Beltran-Alacreu3,4, Daniel López-López5, Rubén Sánchez-Gómez1, David Rodríguez-Sanz1

1. Faculty of Sport, Universidad Europea, Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid, Spain.
2. Nursing and Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), Universidad de León, Ponferrada, Spain.
3. Departamento de Fisioterapia. Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Spain.
4. Motion in Brains Research Group. Instituto de Neurociencias y Ciencias del Movimiento. Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
5. Department of Health Sciences; Research, Health and Podiatry Unit. Faculty of Nursing and Podiatry, Universidade da Coruña, Ferrol, Spain.

Abstract

Purpose: Abdominal muscles are key in maintaining body stability and balance and an improvement in the functioning of these muscles could influence the rehabilitation process in lower limb pathologies such as Achilles Tendinopathy (AT). The aim was to explore whether calf eccentric exercise (EE) with vibration training was more effective at causing adaptation to the rectus anterior (RA) thickness and inter-rectus distance (IRD) than calf EE with cryotherapy.

Methods: The investigation was a single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NCT03515148). Sixty-one individuals diagnosed with mid-portion AT were recruited and divided in two groups: group A (n = 30) followed an EE with vibration program and group B (n = 31) an EE program with cryotherapy, for 12-weeks. RA muscle thickness and IRD were measured in maximal isometric contraction and at rest as an indication of superficial abdominal muscle activation.

Results: IRD measures showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease at baseline, 4 and at 12-weeks in both groups, but no significant differences were observed between the intervention groups. RA thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in measures at baseline, 4 and 12-weeks showed a significant increase in maximal isometric contraction and at rest in favor of the EE vibration program group.

Conclusions: The present study showed a RA thickness increase in both groups in favor of the EE vibration program with respect to cryotherapy added to EE in short and mid term in maximal isometric contraction and at rest in subjects with chronic mid-portion AT. IRD was decreased in both groups without between-groups differences.

Keywords: eccentric exercise, rectus abdominis, tendinopathy

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How to cite this article:
Romero-Morales C, Martín-Llantino PJ, Calvo-Lobo C, Beltran-Alacreu H, López-López D, Sánchez-Gómez R, Rodríguez-Sanz D. Effectiveness of Eccentric Exercise and a Vibration or Cryotherapy Program in Enhancing Rectus Abdominis Muscle Thickness and Inter-Rectus Distance in Patients with Chronic Mid-Portion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(14):1764-1770. doi:10.7150/ijms.28656. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v15p1764.htm