International Journal of Medical Sciences

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24 September 2018

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Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(12):1384-1396. doi:10.7150/ijms.24702

Research Paper

B355252, A Novel Small Molecule, Confers Neuroprotection Against Cobalt Chloride Toxicity In Mouse Hippocampal Cells Through Altering Mitochondrial Dynamics And Limiting Autophagy Induction

Uchechukwu Chimeh*, Mary Ann Zimmerman*, Nailya Gilyazova, P. Andy Li

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biomanufacturing Research Institute Biotechnology Enterprise (BRITE), North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC USA
*Equal Contributions

Abstract

Cerebral hypoxia as often occurs in cases of stroke, hemorrhage, or other traumatic brain injuries, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and a main driver of disabilities in the elderly. Using a chemical mimetic of hypoxia, cobalt chloride (CoCl2), we tested the ability of a novel small molecule, 4-chloro-N-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)-5-(3-(piperazin-1-yl)phenoxy)thiophene-2-sulfonamide (B355252), to alleviate CoCl2-induced damage in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed during CoCl2 treatment along with increases in mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). B355252 conferred protection against these changes. We further found that mitochondrial dynamics, the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission, were perturbed by CoCl2 treatment. Mitochondrial fusion, which was assessed by measuring the expression of proteins optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), declined due to CoCl2 exposure, but B355252 addition was able to elevate Mfn2 expression while OPA1 expression was unchanged. Mitochondrial fission, measured by phosphorylated dynamin-related protein 1 (p-DRP1) and fission protein 1 (FIS1) expression, also decreased following CoCl2 exposure, and was stabilized by B355252 addition. Finally, autophagy was assessed by measuring the conversion of cytosolic microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain three-I (LC3-I) to autophagosome-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain three-II (LC3-II) and was found to be increased by CoCl2. B355252 addition significantly reduced autophagy induction. Taken together, our results indicate B355252 has therapeutic potential to reduce the damaging effects caused by CoCl2 and should be further evaluated for applications in cerebral ischemia therapy.

Keywords: Hypoxia, mitochondrial dynamics, cobalt chloride, B355252, fusion, fission

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How to cite this article:
Chimeh U, Zimmerman MA, Gilyazova N, Li PA. B355252, A Novel Small Molecule, Confers Neuroprotection Against Cobalt Chloride Toxicity In Mouse Hippocampal Cells Through Altering Mitochondrial Dynamics And Limiting Autophagy Induction. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(12):1384-1396. doi:10.7150/ijms.24702. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v15p1384.htm