International Journal of Medical Sciences

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21 November 2018

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Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(10):1043-1050. doi:10.7150/ijms.25634

Review

A Review on the Effects of Bisphenol A and Its Derivatives on Skeletal Health

Kok-Yong Chin1✉, Kok-Lun Pang2, Wun Fui Mark-Lee3

1. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
2. Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
3. School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor which can bind to the oestrogen receptor. It also possesses oestrogenic, antiandrogenic, inflammatory and oxidative properties. Since bone responds to changes in sex hormones, inflammatory and oxidative status, BPA exposure could influence bone health in humans. This review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the relationship between BPA and bone health derived from cellular, animal and human studies. Exposure to BPA (0.5-12.5 µM) decreased the proliferation of osteoblast and osteoclast precursor cells and induce their apoptosis. Bisphenol AF (10 nM) enhanced transforming growth factor beta signalling but bisphenol S (10 nM) inhibited Wnt signalling involved in osteoblast differentiation in vitro. In animals, BPA and its derivatives demonstrated distinct effects in different models. In prenatal/postnatal exposure, BPA increased femoral bone mineral content in male rats (at 25 ug/kg/day) but decreased femoral mechanical strength in female mice (at 10 µg/kg/day). In oestrogen deficiency models, BPA improved bone mineral density and microstructures in aromatase knockout mice (at very high dose, 0.1% or 1.0% w/w diet) but decreased trabecular density in ovariectomized rats (at 37 or 370 ug/kg/day). In contrast, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (30 mg/kg/day i.p.) improved bone health in normal male and female rodents and decreased trabecular separation in ovariectomized rodents. Two cross-sectional studies have been performed to examine the relationship between BPA level and bone mineral density in humans but they yielded negligible association. As a conclusion, BPA and its derivatives could influence bone health and a possible gender effect was observed in animal studies. However, its effects in humans await verification from more comprehensive longitudinal studies in the future.

Keywords: Bone, Endocrine discruptor, Oestrogen, Osteoporosis, Xenoestrogen

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How to cite this article:
Chin KY, Pang KL, Mark-Lee WF. A Review on the Effects of Bisphenol A and Its Derivatives on Skeletal Health. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(10):1043-1050. doi:10.7150/ijms.25634. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v15p1043.htm