21 July 2018
Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(6):617-627. doi:10.7150/ijms.23924
Anti-biofilm and Anti-Virulence Efficacy of Celastrol Against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
1. Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 31538, Republic of Korea
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients. This pathogen is difficult to treat owing to its intrinsic multidrug resistance and ability to form antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential use of celastrol as a novel anti-biofilm and/or anti-virulence agent against S. maltophilia. Results showed that celastrol at its sub-inhibitory doses decreased biofilm formation and disrupt the established biofilms produced by S. maltophilia. Celastrol-induced decrease in biofilm formation was dose-dependent based on the results of the microtiter plate biofilm assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, our data validated the anti-virulence efficacy of celastrol, wherein it significantly interfered with the production of protease and motility of S. maltophilia. To support these phenotypic results, transcriptional analysis revealed that celastrol down-regulated the expression of biofilm- and virulence- associated genes (smeYZ, fsnR, and bfmAK) in S. maltophilia. Interestingly, celastrol significantly inhibited the expression of smeYZ gene, which encodes the resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type efflux pump, SmeYZ. Overall, our findings suggested that celastrol might be a promising bioactive agent for treatment of biofilm- and virulence-related infections caused by the multi-drug resistant S. maltophilia.
Keywords: Celastrol, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Anti-biofilm, Anti-virulence, Resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type efflux pump
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Kim HR, Lee D, Eom YB. Anti-biofilm and Anti-Virulence Efficacy of Celastrol Against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(6):617-627. doi:10.7150/ijms.23924. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v15p0617.htm