23 February 2019
Global reach, higher impact
Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(4):395-402. doi:10.7150/ijms.23097
Distribution of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen-4 Promoter Polymorphisms in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
1. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei,
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with chronic inflammation, suggesting the metabolic abnormalities are originated from or exacerbated by cytokine overproduction. Cytokines and counter-regulatory molecules are crucial in keeping the balance of immune responses and, therefore, are potential candidates involved in T2DM etiology, development and complications. Our previous reports identify several significant associations between the genotypes of cytokine genes and T2DM and/or the clinical lipid parameters, which strongly suggest the participation of immune-regulatory molecules in lipid metabolism. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of gene encoding cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), a T-cell negative regulator, in T2DM patients and health subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from 287 Taiwanese T2DM patients and 278 ethnic- and age- matched healthy subjects, and two CTLA-4 polymorphisms (-318 C/T and +49 A/G) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Intriguingly, CTLA-4 -318 genotype was associated with circulatory triglycerides in T2DM subjects (P=0.019) although no significant association between CTLA-4 -318 (P=0.119) and +49 (P=0.2) genotypes with T2DM was identified. In addition, CTLA-4 +49 genotype was significantly associated with the ratio between total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (P=0.004) in control subjects. Our results suggest that CTLA-4 may be involved in lipid metabolism and affect T2DM disease progression and/or the development of diabetic complications although this gene does not represent a major risk factor for T2DM.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4, genetic polymorphisms
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Shih YL, Lu HF, Hsiao CW, Ho KT, Chen PC, Huang CN, Chang Y, Kao SJ, Shiau MY, Chang YH. Distribution of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen-4 Promoter Polymorphisms in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(4):395-402. doi:10.7150/ijms.23097. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v15p0395.htm