19 August 2017
Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(9):820-828. doi:10.7150/ijms.19282
Cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61) upregulated in pulmonary arterial hypertension promotes the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells
1. Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China;
Background: We aimed to evaluate the expression of cysteine rich 61 (Cyr61) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as well as monocrotaline (MCT) induced PAH rat, and further investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of Cyr61 on the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs).
Methods and Results: Plasma samples were collected from 20 patients with idiopathic PAH, 20 connective tissue disease (CTD) associated PAH, 29 age-, gender- and disease matched CTD without PAH patients, and 28 healthy controls. ELISA was used to detect the level of Cyr61 in plasma. MCT-induced PAH (MCT-PAH) rat model was established by a single subcutaneous injection of MCT (60mg·kg-1). Lung tissues and pulmonary arteries of rats were collected, while the PASMCs were dissected and cultivated for in vitro experiments. Expression of Cyr61 in the lung tissues, pulmonary arteries and PASMCs were tested by immunohistochemical staining, western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. PASMCs from PAH rats were stimulated by exogenous recombinant Cyr61 protein and knocked down by small interfering RNA. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to identify cell proliferation and the expression of p-AKT and AKT were analysed by western blot. The results showed plasma level of Cyr61 in PAH patients, especially CTD-PAH patients, were significant higher than that of CTD without PAH patients and healthy controls. Compared with wild rats, Cyr61 was overexpressed in the lung tissue, pulmonary arterial and PASMCs in PAH rats. Exogenous recombinant Cyr61 protein promoted the proliferation of PASMCs in a dose-dependent manner. While the expression of Cyr61 in PASMCs was inhibited by specific siRNA, cell proliferation was restrained and the expression of p-AKT declined.
Conclusion: Plasma Cyr61 concentration in PAH patients was highly increased. Cyr61 could promote PASMCs proliferation via AKT pathway, indicating that Cyr61 may play a role in the pathogenesis of PAH.
Keywords: Cysteine rich 61, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, proliferation
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Gao L, Fan Y, Hao Y, Yuan P, Liu D, Jing Z, Zhang Z. Cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61) upregulated in pulmonary arterial hypertension promotes the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(9):820-828. doi:10.7150/ijms.19282. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v14p0820.htm