International Journal of Medical Sciences
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29 May 2017

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Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(6):560-569. doi:10.7150/ijms.18702

Research Paper

Bioactivities of ethanol extract from the Antarctic freshwater microalga, Chloromonas sp.

Sung-Suk Suh1, Eun Jin Yang2, Sung Gu Lee1, 3, Ui Joung Youn1, Se Jong Han1, 3, Il-Chan Kim1, 3, Sanghee Kim1, 3✉

1. Division of Polar Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, 21990, Republic of Korea;
2. Department of Polar Ocean Environment, Korea Polar Research Institution, Incheon, 21990, Republic of Korea;
3. Department of Polar Science, University of Science and Technology, Incheon, 21990, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Cancer is the principal cause of human death and occurs through highly complex processes that involve the multiple coordinated mechanisms of tumorigenesis. A number of studies have indicated that the microalgae extracts showed anticancer activity in a variety of human cancer cells and can provide a new insight in the development of novel anti-cancer therapy. Here, in order to investigate molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity in the Antarctic freshwater microalga, Chloromonas sp., we prepared ethanol extract of Chloromonas sp. (ETCH) and performed several in vitro assays using human normal keratinocyte (HaCaT) and different types of cancer cells including cervical, melanoma, and breast cancer cells (HeLa, A375 and Hs578T, respectively). We revealed that ETCH had the antioxidant capacity, and caused significant cell growth inhibition and apoptosis of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it showed no anti-proliferation to normal cells. In addition, ETCH had a significant inhibitory effect on cell invasion without the cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, ETCH-induced apoptosis was mediated by increase in pro-apoptotic proteins including cleaved caspase-3 and p53, and by decrease in anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 in ETCH-treated cancer cells. Taken together, this work firstly explored the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an Antarctic freshwater microalga, and ETCH could be a potential therapeutic candidate in the treatment of human cancer.

Keywords: Bioactivities, ethanol extract, Chloromonas sp.

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How to cite this article:
Suh SS, Yang EJ, Lee SG, Youn UJ, Han SJ, Kim IC, Kim S. Bioactivities of ethanol extract from the Antarctic freshwater microalga, Chloromonas sp.. Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(6):560-569. doi:10.7150/ijms.18702. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v14p0560.htm