24 November 2017
Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(6):554-559. doi:10.7150/ijms.17890
ProEx C as Diagnostic Marker for Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma in Urinary Samples: A Review
1. Pathology and Cytopathology Unit, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Naples, Italy;
The gold standard for the detection of urothelial carcinoma is represented by urethro-cystoscopy and biopsy. Both procedures are invasive and expensive and therefore cytology is often used as first approach to investigate on a possible neoplasia, being a safe and cost-effective diagnostic modality of evaluation. Because cytology alone is not highly sensitive for detection of low grade urothelial carcinoma and recurrence of the disease, several adjunct markers and urine based tests for urothelial carcinoma have been developed, which can help in the final diagnosis. In particular, ProEx C is an immunohistochemical cocktail containing antibodies direct against topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) and minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2) proteins. It proved to be a valid biomarker especially in detecting squamous intraepithelial lesions in cervical liquid-based samples and in discerning these lesions from their mimickers, as well as in ovarian, endometrial, vulvar, primary and metastatic melanomas, breast, pancreatic and renal cell carcinomas. This brief review covers the effective utility of ProEx C as adjunct tool in assessing the urothelial lesions in urine cytology, also providing prognostic and therapeutic information to help in clinical decisions.
Keywords: ProEx C biomarker, urothelial carcinoma, urine cytology samples.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Botti G, Malzone MG, La Mantia E, Montanari M, Vanacore D, Rossetti S, Quagliariello V, Cavaliere C, Di Franco R, Castaldo L, Ametrano G, Cappuccio F, Romano FJ, Piscitelli R, Pepe MF, D'Aniello C, Facchini G. ProEx C as Diagnostic Marker for Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma in Urinary Samples: A Review. Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(6):554-559. doi:10.7150/ijms.17890. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v14p0554.htm