International Journal of Medical Sciences

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23 September 2017

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Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(6):554-559. doi:10.7150/ijms.17890

Review

ProEx C as Diagnostic Marker for Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma in Urinary Samples: A Review

Gerardo Botti1, Maria Gabriella Malzone1, 2✉, Elvira La Mantia1, 2, Micaela Montanari2, 3, Daniela Vanacore2, Sabrina Rossetti2, 4, Vincenzo Quagliariello2, 4, Carla Cavaliere2, 5, Rossella Di Franco2, 6, Luigi Castaldo2, 7, Gianluca Ametrano2, 6, Francesca Cappuccio2, 8, Francesco Jacopo Romano2, Raffaele Piscitelli2, 9, Maria Filomena Pepe1, 2, Carmine D'Aniello2, 10, Gaetano Facchini 4

1. Pathology and Cytopathology Unit, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Naples, Italy;
2. Progetto ONCONET 2.0 - Linea progettuale 14 per l'implementazione della prevenzione e diagnosi precoce del tumore alla prostata e testicolo - Regione Campania, Italy
3. Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80100 Naples, Italy;
4. Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Uro-Gynaecological Oncology, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Naples, Italy;
5. Department of Onco-Ematology Medical Oncology, S.G. Moscati Hospital of Taranto, Taranto, Italy;
6. Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Naples, Italy;
7. Division of Urology, Department of Uro-Gynaecological Oncology, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Naples, Italy;
8. Psicology Unit, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Naples, Italy;
9. Pharmacy Unit, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Naples, Italy;
10. Division of Medical Oncology, A.O.R.N. dei COLLI “Ospedali Monaldi-Cotugno-CTO”, Naples, Italy.

Abstract

The gold standard for the detection of urothelial carcinoma is represented by urethro-cystoscopy and biopsy. Both procedures are invasive and expensive and therefore cytology is often used as first approach to investigate on a possible neoplasia, being a safe and cost-effective diagnostic modality of evaluation. Because cytology alone is not highly sensitive for detection of low grade urothelial carcinoma and recurrence of the disease, several adjunct markers and urine based tests for urothelial carcinoma have been developed, which can help in the final diagnosis. In particular, ProEx C is an immunohistochemical cocktail containing antibodies direct against topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) and minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2) proteins. It proved to be a valid biomarker especially in detecting squamous intraepithelial lesions in cervical liquid-based samples and in discerning these lesions from their mimickers, as well as in ovarian, endometrial, vulvar, primary and metastatic melanomas, breast, pancreatic and renal cell carcinomas. This brief review covers the effective utility of ProEx C as adjunct tool in assessing the urothelial lesions in urine cytology, also providing prognostic and therapeutic information to help in clinical decisions.

Keywords: ProEx C biomarker, urothelial carcinoma, urine cytology samples.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Botti G, Malzone MG, La Mantia E, Montanari M, Vanacore D, Rossetti S, Quagliariello V, Cavaliere C, Di Franco R, Castaldo L, Ametrano G, Cappuccio F, Romano FJ, Piscitelli R, Pepe MF, D'Aniello C, Facchini G. ProEx C as Diagnostic Marker for Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma in Urinary Samples: A Review. Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(6):554-559. doi:10.7150/ijms.17890. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v14p0554.htm