International Journal of Medical Sciences
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25 May 2017

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Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(2):143-149. doi:10.7150/ijms.17456

Research Paper

Dexmedetomidine Inhibits Phenylephrine-induced Contractions via Alpha-1 Adrenoceptor Blockade and Nitric Oxide Release in Isolated Rat Aortae

Hyo-Jin Byon1*, Seong-Ho Ok2*, Soo Hee Lee2, Sebin Kang3, Youngil Cho3, Jeong Yeol Han4, Ju-Tae Sohn2,5✉

1. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea;
2. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, 52727, Republic of Korea;
3. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, 52727, Republic of Korea;
4. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Changwon, 51427, Republic of Korea;
5. Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju-si, Republic of Korea.
*These authors equally contributed to this study as co-first authors.

Abstract

The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of the alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine on phenylephrine (alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist)-induced contraction in isolated rat aortae and to elucidate the associated cellular mechanisms, with a particular focus on alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonism. Dexmedetomidine dose-response curves were generated in isolated endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rat aortae precontracted with phenylephrine or 5-hydroxytryptamine. Endothelium-denuded aortic rings were pretreated with either dexmedetomidine or the reversible alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine, followed by post-treatment with the irreversible alpha-1 adrenoceptor blocker phenoxybenzamine. Control rings were treated with phenoxybenzamine alone. All rings were repeatedly washed with Krebs solution to remove all pretreatment drugs, including phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine and dexmedetomidine. Phenylephrine dose-response curves were then generated. The effect of rauwolscine on the dexmedetomidine-mediated change in phenylephrine-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined using western blotting. The magnitude of the dexmedetomidine-mediated inhibition of phenylephrine-induced contraction was higher in endothelium-intact aortae than in endothelium-denuded aortae or endothelium-intact aortae treated with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. However, dexmedetomidine did not significantly alter 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction. In further experiments, prazosin attenuated dexmedetomidine-induced contraction. Additionally, pretreatment with either dexmedetomidine plus phenoxybenzamine or phentolamine plus phenoxybenzamine produced greater phenylephrine-induced contraction than phenoxybenzamine alone, suggesting that dexmedetomidine protects aortae from the alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade induced by phenoxybenzamine. Rauwolscine attenuated the dexmedetomidine-mediated enhancement of phenylephrine-induced eNOS phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that dexmedetomidine attenuates phenylephrine-induced contractions via alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade and endothelial nitric oxide release in the isolated rat aorta.

Keywords: dexmedetomidine, phenylephrine, alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, alpha-1 adrenoceptor, contraction, aorta, phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, nitric oxide.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Byon HJ, Ok SH, Lee SH, Kang S, Cho Y, Han JY, Sohn JT. Dexmedetomidine Inhibits Phenylephrine-induced Contractions via Alpha-1 Adrenoceptor Blockade and Nitric Oxide Release in Isolated Rat Aortae. Int J Med Sci 2017; 14(2):143-149. doi:10.7150/ijms.17456. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v14p0143.htm