21 October 2017
Int J Med Sci 2016; 13(8):588-602. doi:10.7150/ijms.15445
The Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio on Admission and Short-Term Outcomes in Orthogeriatric Patients
1. Department of Geriatric Medicine, The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT, Australia
Aim: To investigate the association of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at admission with presence of fracture, comorbid conditions, and its prognostic value for short-term outcomes in orthogeriatric patients.
Methods: On 415 consecutive patients (mean age 78.8 ±8.7[SD] years, 281 women, 255 with a non-vertebral bone fracture, including 167 with a hip fracture, HF) admitted to the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the Canberra hospital (2010 - 2011) data on clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected prospectively. The validation dataset included 294 consecutive patients (mean age 82.1 ± 8.0 years, 72.1% women) with HF.
Results: Multivariate regression revealed four variables, presence of HF, hypoalbuminaemia (<33g/L), anaemia (<120g/L) and hyperparathyroidism (PTH>6.8 pmol/L), as independent determinants of admission NLR≥5.1. There was a dose-graded relationship between presence of fracture, especially HF, postoperative complications and levels of NLR categorized as tertiles. Compared to patients with NLR<5.1(first tertile), patients with NLR 5.1-8.5 (second tertile) had a 1.8-, 3.1-, 2.6-, and 2.5-fold higher risk for presence of any fracture, HF, developing postoperative myocardial injury (troponin I rise) and a high inflammatory response/infection (CRP>100mg/L after the 3rd postoperative day), respectively, while in subjects with NLR>8.5 (third tertile) these risks were 2.6-, 4.9-, 5.9- and 4.5-times higher, respectively; subjects with NLR>8.5 had a 9.7 times higher chance of dying in the hospital compared to patients with NLR 5.1-8.5; the NLR retained its significance on multivariate analyses. The NLR ≥5.1 predicted postoperative myocardial injury with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.626, CRP>100mg/L with AUC of 0.631 and the NLR >8.5 predicted in-hospital mortality with an AUC of 0.793, showing moderately high sensitivity (86.7%, 80% and 90%, respectively) and negative predictive value (92.9%, 71.2%, 99.6%, respectively), but low specificity. Admission NLR was superior to other, except hypoalbuminaemia, prognostic markers; combined use of both NLR≥5.1 and albumin<33g/L only moderately increased the accuracy of prediction. The validation study confirmed the prognostic value of the admission NLR.
Conclusions: In orthogeriatric patients, high NLR on admission is an independent indicator of fracture presence, a significant risk factor and moderate predictor of postoperative myocardial injury, high inflammatory response/infection and in-hospital death.
Keywords: neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), orthogeriatric patients, hip fracture, outcomes
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How to cite this article:
Fisher A, Srikusalanukul W, Fisher L, Smith P. The Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio on Admission and Short-Term Outcomes in Orthogeriatric Patients. Int J Med Sci 2016; 13(8):588-602. doi:10.7150/ijms.15445. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v13p0588.htm