20 March 2018
Int J Med Sci 2015; 12(8):650-654. doi:10.7150/ijms.12304
Regulatory and Effector Helper T-Cell Profile after Nerve Xenografting in the Toll-Like Receptor-Deficient Mice
1. Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan
Introduction: The balance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector T help cells (Th cells) is critical for the control of adaptive immune response during nerve transplantation. However, whether the homeostasis of immune regulation between Tregs and Th cells requires toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is unclear. The aim of this study is to profile the distribution of spleen Tregs and Th cells in a mouse model of nerve xenografting in the TLR2 and NF-κB gene knockout mice.
Methods: The sciatic nerve was taken from a SD rat or an allogeneic mouse and transplanted to a right back leg of recipient C57BL/6, TLR2-/-, or NF-κB-/- mice by subcutaneous transplantation. After 7 days, the T lymphocytes were then isolated from spleen, stained with phenotyping kits, and analyzed by flow cytometry.
Results: The results showed that Tregs were decreased after nerve xenografting in the recipient C57BL/6 mouse. In addition, nerve xenografting also increased the Th1 and Th17 but not the Th2 cell populations. In contrast, amelioration of the Tregs elimination was found in TLR2-/- and NF-κB-/- mice after transplantation of the nerve xenograft. Moreover, the mice lacking TLR2 or NF-κB showed attenuation of the increase in Th1 and Th17 cells after nerve xenografting.
Conclusions: TLR signaling is involved in T cell population regulation during tissue transplantation. Knock-out of TLR2 and NF-κB prevented Tregs elimination and inhibited Th1- and Th17-driven immune response after nerve xenografting. This study highlighted the potential of inhibiting TLR signaling to modulate T cell-mediated immune regulation to facilitate tolerance to nerve transplantation.
Keywords: Nerve xenografting, Toll-like receptor (TLR), Regulatory T cells (Tregs), T help cells (Th cells)
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Rau CS, Lin MW, Wu SC, Wu YC, Lu TH, Tzeng SL, Chen YC, Wu CJ, Hsieh CH. Regulatory and Effector Helper T-Cell Profile after Nerve Xenografting in the Toll-Like Receptor-Deficient Mice. Int J Med Sci 2015; 12(8):650-654. doi:10.7150/ijms.12304. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v12p0650.htm