International Journal of Medical Sciences

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14 December 2017

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Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(5):567-574. doi:10.7150/ijms.5795

Research Paper

Adherence to Medication Is a More Important Contributor to Viral Breakthrough in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Treated with Entecavir Than in Those with Lamivudine

Hidehiro Kamezaki1*, Tatsuo Kanda1* ✉, Makoto Arai1, Shuang Wu1, Shingo Nakamoto1, Tetsuhiro Chiba1, Hitoshi Maruyama1, Keiichi Fujiwara1, Fumihiko Kanai1, Fumio Imazeki1, Fumio Nomura2, Osamu Yokosuka1

1. Departments of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan;
2. Departments of Molecular Diagnosis, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.
* Hidehiro Kamezaki and Tatsuo Kanda contributed equally.

Abstract

Viral breakthrough is related to poor adherence to medication in some chronic hepatitis B patients treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Our study aimed to examine how adherence to medication is associated with viral breakthrough in patients treated with NAs. A total of 203 patients (135 ETV and 68 LAM) were analyzed in this retrospective analysis. Physical examination, serum liver enzyme tests, and hepatitis B virus marker tests were performed at least every 3 months. We reviewed medical records and performed medical interviews regarding to patients' adherence to medication. Adherence rates <90% were defined as poor adherence in the present study. Cumulative viral breakthrough rates were lower in the ETV-treated patients than in the LAM-treated patients (P<0.001). Seven ETV-treated (5.1%) and 6 LAM-treated patients (8.8%) revealed poor adherence to medication (P=0.48). Among ETV-treated patients, 4 (3.1%) of 128 patients without poor adherence experienced viral breakthrough and 3 (42.8%) of 7 patients with poor adherence experienced viral breakthrough (P<0.001). Only 3 of 38 (7.8%) LAM-treated patients with viral breakthrough had poor adherence, a lower rate than the ETV-treated patients (P=0.039). Nucleoside analogue resistance mutations were observed in 50.0% of ETV- and 94.1% of LAM-treated patients with viral breakthrough (P=0.047). Viral breakthrough associated with poor adherence could be a more important issue in the treatment with especially stronger NAs, such as ETV.

Keywords: Adherence, Entecavir, Lamivudine, Hepatitis B, Viral Breakthrough.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Kamezaki H, Kanda T, Arai M, Wu S, Nakamoto S, Chiba T, Maruyama H, Fujiwara K, Kanai F, Imazeki F, Nomura F, Yokosuka O. Adherence to Medication Is a More Important Contributor to Viral Breakthrough in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Treated with Entecavir Than in Those with Lamivudine. Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(5):567-574. doi:10.7150/ijms.5795. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v10p0567.htm