22 October 2017
Int J Med Sci 2012; 9(6):492-497. doi:10.7150/ijms.4793
Prevention of Propofol Injection Pain in Children: A Comparison of Pretreatment with Tramadol and Propofol-Lidocaine Mixture
1. Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Konya, Turkey;
Background: The pain on propofol injection is considered to be a common and difficult to eliminate problem in children. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with tramadol 1 mg.kg-1and propofol-lidocaine 20 mg mixture for prevention of propofol induced pain in children.
Methods: One hundred and twenty ASA I-II patients undergoing orthopedic and otolaryngological surgery were included in this study and were divided into three groups with random table numbers. Group C (n=39) received normal saline placebo and Group T (n=40) received 1 mg.kg-1 tramadol 60 sec before propofol (180 mg 1% propofol with 2 ml normal saline) whereas Group L (n=40) received normal saline placebo before propofol-lidocaine mixture (180 mg 1% propofol with 2 ml %1 lidocaine). One patient in Group C was dropped out from the study because of difficulty in inserting an iv cannula. Thus, one hundred and nineteen patients were analyzed for the study. After given the calculated dose of propofol, a blinded observer assessed the pain with a four-point behavioral scale.
Results: There were no significant differences in patient characteristics and intraoperative variables (p>0.05) except intraoperative fentanyl consumption and analgesic requirement one hr after surgery among the groups (p<0.05). Both tramadol 1 mg.kg-1 and lidocaine 20 mg mixture significantly reduced propofol pain when compared with control group. Moderate and severe pain were found higher in control group (p<0.05). The incidence of overall pain was 79.4% in the control group, 35% in tramadol group, 25% in lidocaine group respectively (p<0.001).
Conclusions: Pretreatment with tramadol 60 sec before propofol injection and propofol-lidocaine mixture were significantly reduced propofol injection pain when compared to placebo in children.
Keywords: tramadol, lidocaine, propofol, pain, children.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Borazan H, Sahin O, Kececioglu A, Uluer MS, Et T, Otelcioglu S. Prevention of Propofol Injection Pain in Children: A Comparison of Pretreatment with Tramadol and Propofol-Lidocaine Mixture. Int J Med Sci 2012; 9(6):492-497. doi:10.7150/ijms.4793. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v09p0492.htm